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1 Historical Perspective - 6 stage model Bunker, B., & Thorpe, R. (1986). The curriculum model. In R. Thorpe, Bunker, D., & Almond, L (Ed.), Rethinking.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Historical Perspective - 6 stage model Bunker, B., & Thorpe, R. (1986). The curriculum model. In R. Thorpe, Bunker, D., & Almond, L (Ed.), Rethinking."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Historical Perspective - 6 stage model Bunker, B., & Thorpe, R. (1986). The curriculum model. In R. Thorpe, Bunker, D., & Almond, L (Ed.), Rethinking games teaching (pp. 7-10). Loughborough: University of Technology, Loughborough.

2 2 When play a game? Why? 3 stage model Game Form (Representation, Exaggeration) Tactical AwarenessSkill Execution Griffin, L. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Oslin, J. L. (1997). Teaching sport concepts and skills : A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

3 3 Pedagogical Principles Modification – Representation Mini games are developed that contain the same tactical problems of the adult game but are played with adaptations to suit the learners size, age and ability. For example - 3 on 3 soccer, mini-court tennis. Modification - Exaggeration Tactical problems may be too difficult to solve in mini games. Secondary rules can be used to exaggerate tactical problems. Long narrow court in badminton leaves space for drop shot. Scoring system focuses on the use of a certain skill or play –i.e, high scoring target spaces in fielding game.

4 4 Game performance becomes… Decision making Supporting Marking or guarding Covering teammates Adjusting position as game play unfolds Ensuring adequate court or field coverage by a base position (p. 12)

5 5 Games frameworks - Key questions Griffin et al. framework 1.What problems does this game present for scoring, preventing scoring, and restarting play? 2.What off-the-ball movements and on-the- ball skills are necessary to solve these problems?

6 6 Defining games Target – propel an object, with a high degree of accuracy, at a target. Batting/fielding or run scoring - strike a ball so it eludes defenders Net/Wall – propelling an object into space so an opponent is unable to make a return. Invasion or Territory – to invade an opponents territory to score. Griffin et. al. (1997, p.9)

7 7 Fundamental Skills Body Management (BM) skills –ie. Running, stopping, balance, guarding... Equipment Handling (EH) skills –Sending or propelling, ie. throw, strike… –Receiving, ie. catching, trapping… –Retaining, ie. carrying, dribbling…

8 8 Physical characteristics Physical characteristics characteristics Physical characteristics PHYSICAL ACTIVITY GAMES THAT USE AN OBJECT BATTING/ FIELDING OVAL FAN TARGET OPPOSED UNOPPOSED TERRITORY OPEN END TARGET (LINE) FOCUSED TARGET(NET) NET/WALL DIVIDED SHARED PRIMARY RULE (I)score by getting your object(s) closer to a target than your opponent(s). PRIMARY RULES: ( i)score by striking object and running between safe areas; stop scoring by catching ball in the air or getting it to a safe area before thebatter. PRIMARY RULE (I)score by getting the object into your opponent's areas of play more often than they can return the object back into your area. PRIMARY RULE (i) score by getting object into opponents' goal; opponents try to stop scoring. EH- Sending, receiving and retaining (especially as traveling) BM- Running, dodging, guarding, stopping and intercepting BM- Stability and good balance as deliver object EH- Sending away and aiming BM- Running, covering, stopping, sliding and guarding EH- Sending-away and receiving skills BM- Changing direction quickly, moving in all directions, stopping, guarding and covering EH- Sending (striking) and preparing to receive For example,tennis, volleyball, squash and racquetball For example, baseball, softball, and cricket For example, curling, bowling and golf For example, soccer, hockey, basketball, rugby and football Key BM- Body management. Also referred to as locomotion or non-locomotion skills. EH- Equipment handling. Also referred to as manipulative skills. A Framework for Categorizing Physical Activity Games That Use an Object

9 9 Progressive principles play Hopper, T. (1998). Teaching games for understanding using progressive principles of play. CAHPERD, 64(3), 4-7.

10 10 Tactical Awareness Components SPACE (a) where an object should be placed in the area of play, and (b) where a player should go in the area of play based on the placement of the object. TIME (a) when to execute a skill within a game, (b) when to create time to play a shot, and (c) when to reduce opponents time. FORCE (a) how much force to apply on an object for height, directional control and distance. (b) how to apply force on an object for height, directional control and distance

11 11 Basic Task Model Task

12 12 Tactic-skill Progressions Key ideas. 1.Off-the-ball movements. 2.Awareness of space, time and force components. 3.Modified game that all students can play. 4.Progressive and recursive development of principles. 5.Concepts transfer across games.

13 13 Base - appropriate return of performer to a home or recovery position between skill attempts. Decision making - making appropriate choices about what to do with the object or when defending space. Cover - defensive movement in relation to object being played by an opponent (cover space) or provide defensive help for player making a play on the ball. Adjust - movement of player, offensively or defensively, as required by the play of the object in the game. Skill execution - efficient performance of selected skills. Support (pass used) - off-the-ball movement to a position to receive a pass when players team has possession. Guard or mark - defending against an opponent who may or may not have the ball. Game Performance Assessment Components* *Griffin, L. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Oslin, J. L. (1997). Teaching sport concepts and skills : A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

14 14 4 Rs for Territory/Invasion READ RESPOND REACT RECOVER Team does not have ballTeam has the ball Base Ball received or kept by player Skill Execution Adjust Support READ RESPOND RECOVER Cover Mark Base Ball played RECOVER Decision Making Guard

15 15 Anatomy of a game performance for Net/Wall games READ RESPOND REACT RECOVER Tactical Awareness Player decision making Off-the ball movement skill selection then skill execution On-the ball skill selection then skill execution Off-the ball movement skill selection then skill execution Decision Making Cover Adjust Base

16 16 Review for Mid-term Reading play - 4 Rs Tactical Components - Space, force and time Three phases to game play - Co-op, Compete and To Win GPAI - Game Performance Assessment Instrument Reading Hopper. (2002). Four R's for tactical awareness: Bell, R., & Hopper, T. (2003). Space the first frontier: Tactical awareness in teaching games for understanding. Physical and Health Education Journal, 69(1), 4-7. Chapter 2 and 10 from Griffin text - GPAI.

17 17 Summary - Lesson Plan Has… Phases of a lesson - intro, skill/concept, culminating. Movement tasks. Task progressions - game, skill cues, refinements, questions. Management tasks. Management tasks - grouping, roles, routines. Organization of equipment and space (diagram). Administration - register, jewelry, announcements. Learning intents. Objectives (TSWBA) - CAPS learning domains. Evaluation (outcomes) - closure, closing questions.

18 Content Focus Game Learner Learning Context Strategic Play Co-op play between learners based on game structure Learning Context Modified game designed to emphasize skill and tactical use by the learners Technique Practice BM skills to enable off-the- ball movements, or EH skills to use object in game. Decision Making Movement behaviour in relation to the game environment (space, object, rules & opponent) Tactic Play competitive game using space, force & time components, selecting and executing skills. Culminating Competitive game based on adult game structure. In time GPAI assess with peer observer Teacher Intent Teacher starts lesson with a body management focus. A game is developed that emphasizes students off- the-ball movement. The game should serve as review of tactical ideas or lead to a strategic focus to develop tactical ideas. Modify game adapting object, space, no. of players, rules and equipment to students abilities. Then use game to work on strategic focus. Teacher sets tasks based on an application game Students play in a co-operative game structure. Teacher assesses skill ability and game understanding of the students extending or simplifying tasks as needed. Based on students play teacher focuses students awareness on, (1) need to practice technique, (2) make decisions about how to use skills to play the game, or (3) how to play tactically to challenge opponent(s). Students then work on technique or play a game with a co-operative then competitive focus. If able students can choose to play a game with a scoring system. Teacher can then develop game structure, introduce new modified game or play culminating game. Culminating game designed to progress students towards the adult game structure. Culminating game develops from tactical and skills taught in the modified games. When students able to play the game use the GPAI form to assess game performance.. Student Adaptation Strategic Play Why need it? Technique How to do it? Decision What to do? Tactical Player-in-situation Teacher- in-situation decides Culminating Game Game performance assessment

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