1 Historical Perspective - 6 stage model Bunker, B., & Thorpe, R. (1986). The curriculum model. In R. Thorpe, Bunker, D., & Almond, L (Ed.), Rethinking games teaching (pp. 7-10). Loughborough: University of Technology, Loughborough.
2 When play a game? Why? 3 stage model Game Form(Representation, Exaggeration)Tactical AwarenessSkill ExecutionGriffin, L. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Oslin, J. L. (1997). Teaching sport concepts and skills: A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
3 Pedagogical Principles Modification – RepresentationMini games are developed that contain the same tactical problems of the adult game but are played with adaptations to suit the learner’s size, age and ability. For example - 3 on 3 soccer, mini-court tennis.Modification - ExaggerationTactical problems may be too difficult to solve in mini games. Secondary rules can be used to exaggerate tactical problems. Long narrow court in badminton leaves space for drop shot. Scoring system focuses on the use of a certain skill or play –i.e, high scoring target spaces in fielding game.
4 Game performance becomes… Decision makingSupportingMarking or guardingCovering teammatesAdjusting position as game play unfoldsEnsuring adequate court or field coverage by a base position (p. 12)
5 Games frameworks - Key questions Griffin et al. frameworkWhat problems does this game present for scoring, preventing scoring, and restarting play?What off-the-ball movements and on-the-ball skills are necessary to solve these problems?
6 Defining gamesTarget – propel an object, with a high degree of accuracy, at a target.Batting/fielding or run scoring - strike a ball so it eludes defendersNet/Wall – propelling an object into space so an opponent is unable to make a return.Invasion or Territory – to invade an opponent’s territory to score.Griffin et. al. (1997, p.9)
7 Fundamental Skills Body Management (BM) skills ie. Running, stopping, balance, guarding...Equipment Handling (EH) skillsSending or propelling, ie. throw, strike…Receiving, ie. catching, trapping…Retaining, ie. carrying, dribbling…
8 A Framework for Categorizing Physical Activity Games That Use an Object KeyBM-Bodymanagement. Alsoreferred to aslocomotion orBM-Stability and goodEH-Sending away andBM-Running, dodging,EH-Sending, receiving andnon-locomotion skills.balance as deliver objectaimingguarding, stopping andretaining (especially as traveling)EH-Equipmentinterceptinghandling. Alsoreferred to asmanipulativeFor example,For example,skills.TARGETcurling, bowling andTERRITORYsoccer, hockey,golfbasketball, rugbyand footballPhysicalPhysicalcharacteristicscharacteristicsOPEN ENDFOCUSEDOPPOSEDUNOPPOSEDTARGET (LINE)TARGET(NET)PRIMARY RULEPRIMARY RULE(I)score by getting your object(s) closer to a(i)score by getting object into opponents' goal;target than your opponent(s).PHYSICALopponents try to stop scoring.ACTIVITYGAMESTHAT USEEH-Sending-away andBM-Changing direction quickly,EH-SendingBM-Running, covering,AN OBJECTmoving in all directions,receiving skills(striking) andstopping, sliding andstopping, guarding and coveringpreparing to receiveguardingBATTING/For example,FIELDINGNET/WALLFor example,tennis,baseball, softball,volleyball, squashand cricketand racquetballPhysicalPhysicalcharacteristicscharacteristicsOVALFANDIVIDEDSHAREDPRIMARY RULES:(i)score by striking object and running betweenPRIMARY RULEsafe areas; stop scoring by catching ball in the air(I)score by getting the object into your opponent'sor getting it to a safe area before thebatter.areas of play more often than they can returnthe object back into your area.
9 Progressive principles play Hopper, T. (1998). Teaching games for understanding using progressive principles of play.CAHPERD, 64(3), 4-7.
10 Tactical Awareness Components SPACE(a) where an object should be placed in the area of play, and(b) where a player should go in the area of play based on the placement of the object.TIME(a) when to execute a skill within a game,(b) when to create time to play a shot, and(c) when to reduce opponent’s time.FORCE(a) how much force to apply on an object for height, directional control and distance.(b) how to apply force on an object for height, directional control and distance
12 Tactic-skill Progressions Key ideas.Off-the-ball movements.Awareness of space, time and force components.Modified game that all students can play.Progressive and recursive development of principles.Concepts transfer across games.
13 Game Performance Assessment Components* Base - appropriate return of performer to a home or recovery position between skill attempts.Decision making - making appropriate choices about what to do with the object or when defending space.Cover - defensive movement in relation to object being played by an opponent (cover space) or provide defensive help for player making a play on the ball.Adjust - movement of player, offensively or defensively, as required by the play of the object in the game.Skill execution - efficient performance of selected skills.Support (pass used) - off-the-ball movement to a position to receive a pass when player’s team has possession.Guard or mark - defending against an opponent who may or may not have the ball.*Griffin, L. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Oslin, J. L. (1997). Teaching sport concepts and skills :A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
14 4 R’s for Territory/Invasion Team does not have ballTeam has the ballBaseBaseRECOVERREADRESPONDREACTRECOVERREADRESPONDRECOVERDecision MakingDecision MakingBall playedSupportBall received or kept by playerGuardCoverMarkAdjustSkill Execution
15 Anatomy of a game performance for Net/Wall games READRESPONDREACTRECOVERTactical AwarenessPlayer decision makingDecision MakingOff-the ball movementskill selectionthen skill executionCoverOn-the ballskill selectionthen skill executionAdjustOff-the ball movementskill selectionthen skill executionBase
16 Review for Mid-term Reading play - 4 Rs Tactical Components - Space, force and timeThree phases to game play - Co-op, Compete and To WinGPAI - Game Performance Assessment InstrumentReadingHopper. (2002). Four R's for tactical awareness:Bell, R., & Hopper, T. (2003). Space the first frontier: Tactical awareness in teaching games for understanding. Physical and Health Education Journal, 69(1), 4-7.Chapter 2 and 10 from Griffin text - GPAI.
17 Summary - Lesson Plan Has… Phases of a lesson - intro, skill/concept, culminating.Movement tasks.Task progressions - game, skill cues, refinements, questions.Management tasks.Management tasks - grouping, roles, routines.Organization of equipment and space (diagram).Administration - register, jewelry, announcements.Learning intents.Objectives (TSWBA) - CAPS learning domains.Evaluation (outcomes) - closure, closing questions.
18 Game Learner Culminating Game Content Focus Student Adaptation Teacher IntentTeacher starts lesson with a body management focus. A game is developed that emphasizes student’s off-the-ball movement. The game should serve as review of tactical ideas or lead to a strategic focus to develop tactical ideas.Modify game adapting object, space, no. of players, rules and equipment to students abilities. Then use game to work on strategic focus.Teacher sets tasks based on an application game Students play in a co-operative game structure. Teacher assesses skill ability and game understanding of the students extending or simplifying tasks as needed.Based on students’ play teacher focuses students’ awareness on, (1) need to practice technique, (2) make decisions about how to use skills to play the game, or (3) how to play tactically to challenge opponent(s).Students then work on technique or play a game with a co-operative then competitive focus. If able students can choose to play a game with a scoring system. Teacher can then develop game structure, introduce new modified game or play culminating game.Culminating game designed to progress students towards the adult game structure. Culminating game develops from tactical and skills taught in the modified games. When students able to play the game use the GPAI form to assess game performance..GameLearnerLearning ContextLearning Context Modified game designed to emphasize skill and tactical use by the learnersStrategic PlayCo-op play between learners based on game structureStrategic Play “Why need it?”TechniquePractice BM skills to enable off-the- ball movements, or EH skills to use object in game.Decision MakingMovement behaviour in relation to thegame environment (space, object, rules & opponent)TacticPlay competitive game using space, force & time components, selecting and executing skills.Technique “How to do it?”Decision “What to do?”Tactical “Player-in-situation”Teacher- in-situation decidesCulminatingGameGame performance assessmentCulminating Competitive game based on adult game structure. Intime GPAI assess with peer observer