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Historical Perspective - 6 stage model

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Perspective - 6 stage model"— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical Perspective - 6 stage model
Bunker, B., & Thorpe, R. (1986). The curriculum model. In R. Thorpe, Bunker, D., & Almond, L (Ed.), Rethinking games teaching (pp. 7-10). Loughborough: University of Technology, Loughborough.

2 When play a game? Why? 3 stage model
Game Form (Representation, Exaggeration) Tactical Awareness Skill Execution Griffin, L. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Oslin, J. L. (1997). Teaching sport concepts and skills : A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

3 Pedagogical Principles
Modification – Representation Mini games are developed that contain the same tactical problems of the adult game but are played with adaptations to suit the learner’s size, age and ability. For example - 3 on 3 soccer, mini-court tennis. Modification - Exaggeration Tactical problems may be too difficult to solve in mini games. Secondary rules can be used to exaggerate tactical problems. Long narrow court in badminton leaves space for drop shot. Scoring system focuses on the use of a certain skill or play –i.e, high scoring target spaces in fielding game.

4 Game performance becomes…
Decision making Supporting Marking or guarding Covering teammates Adjusting position as game play unfolds Ensuring adequate court or field coverage by a base position (p. 12)

5 Games frameworks - Key questions
Griffin et al. framework What problems does this game present for scoring, preventing scoring, and restarting play? What off-the-ball movements and on-the-ball skills are necessary to solve these problems?

6 Defining games Target – propel an object, with a high degree of accuracy, at a target. Batting/fielding or run scoring - strike a ball so it eludes defenders Net/Wall – propelling an object into space so an opponent is unable to make a return. Invasion or Territory – to invade an opponent’s territory to score. Griffin et. al. (1997, p.9)

7 Fundamental Skills Body Management (BM) skills
ie. Running, stopping, balance, guarding... Equipment Handling (EH) skills Sending or propelling, ie. throw, strike… Receiving, ie. catching, trapping… Retaining, ie. carrying, dribbling…

8 A Framework for Categorizing Physical Activity Games That Use an Object
Key BM - Body management. Also referred to as locomotion or BM - Stability and good EH - Sending away and BM - Running, dodging, EH - Sending, receiving and non-locomotion skills. balance as deliver object aiming guarding, stopping and retaining (especially as traveling) EH - Equipment intercepting handling. Also referred to as manipulative For example, For example, skills. TARGET curling, bowling and TERRITORY soccer, hockey, golf basketball, rugby and football Physical Physical characteristics characteristics OPEN END FOCUSED OPPOSED UNOPPOSED TARGET (LINE) TARGET(NET) PRIMARY RULE PRIMARY RULE (I) score by getting your object(s) closer to a (i) score by getting object into opponents' goal; target than your opponent(s). PHYSICAL opponents try to stop scori ng. ACTIVITY GAMES THAT USE EH - Sending - away and BM - Changing direction quickly, EH - Sending BM - Running, covering, AN OBJECT moving in all directions, receiving skills (striking) and stopp ing, sliding and stopping, guarding and covering preparing to receive guarding BATTING/ For example, FIELDING NET/WALL For example,tennis, baseball, softball, volleyball, sq uash and cricket and racquetball Physical Physical characteristics characteris tics OVAL FAN DIVIDED SHAR ED PRIMARY RULES: ( i) score by striking object and running between PRIMARY RULE safe areas; stop scoring by catching ball in the air (I) score by getting the object into your opponent's or getting it to a safe area before the batter. areas of play more often than they can return the object back into your area .

9 Progressive principles play
Hopper, T. (1998). Teaching games for understanding using progressive principles of play. CAHPERD, 64(3), 4-7.

10 Tactical Awareness Components
SPACE (a) where an object should be placed in the area of play, and (b) where a player should go in the area of play based on the placement of the object. TIME (a) when to execute a skill within a game, (b) when to create time to play a shot, and (c) when to reduce opponent’s time. FORCE (a) how much force to apply on an object for height, directional control and distance. (b) how to apply force on an object for height, directional control and distance

11 Basic Task Model Task

12 Tactic-skill Progressions
Key ideas. Off-the-ball movements. Awareness of space, time and force components. Modified game that all students can play. Progressive and recursive development of principles. Concepts transfer across games.

13 Game Performance Assessment Components*
Base - appropriate return of performer to a home or recovery position between skill attempts. Decision making - making appropriate choices about what to do with the object or when defending space. Cover - defensive movement in relation to object being played by an opponent (cover space) or provide defensive help for player making a play on the ball. Adjust - movement of player, offensively or defensively, as required by the play of the object in the game. Skill execution - efficient performance of selected skills. Support (pass used) - off-the-ball movement to a position to receive a pass when player’s team has possession. Guard or mark - defending against an opponent who may or may not have the ball. *Griffin, L. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Oslin, J. L. (1997). Teaching sport concepts and skills : A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

14 4 R’s for Territory/Invasion
Team does not have ball Team has the ball Base Base RECOVER READ RESPOND REACT RECOVER READ RESPOND RECOVER Decision Making Decision Making Ball played Support Ball received or kept by player Guard Cover Mark Adjust Skill Execution

15 Anatomy of a game performance for Net/Wall games
READ RESPOND REACT RECOVER Tactical Awareness Player decision making Decision Making Off-the ball movement skill selection then skill execution Cover On-the ball skill selection then skill execution Adjust Off-the ball movement skill selection then skill execution Base

16 Review for Mid-term Reading play - 4 Rs
Tactical Components - Space, force and time Three phases to game play - Co-op, Compete and To Win GPAI - Game Performance Assessment Instrument Reading Hopper. (2002). Four R's for tactical awareness: Bell, R., & Hopper, T. (2003). Space the first frontier: Tactical awareness in teaching games for understanding. Physical and Health Education Journal, 69(1), 4-7. Chapter 2 and 10 from Griffin text - GPAI.

17 Summary - Lesson Plan Has…
Phases of a lesson - intro, skill/concept, culminating. Movement tasks. Task progressions - game, skill cues, refinements, questions. Management tasks. Management tasks - grouping, roles, routines. Organization of equipment and space (diagram). Administration - register, jewelry, announcements. Learning intents. Objectives (TSWBA) - CAPS learning domains. Evaluation (outcomes) - closure, closing questions.

18 Game Learner Culminating Game Content Focus Student Adaptation
Teacher Intent Teacher starts lesson with a body management focus. A game is developed that emphasizes student’s off-the-ball movement. The game should serve as review of tactical ideas or lead to a strategic focus to develop tactical ideas. Modify game adapting object, space, no. of players, rules and equipment to students abilities. Then use game to work on strategic focus. Teacher sets tasks based on an application game Students play in a co-operative game structure. Teacher assesses skill ability and game understanding of the students extending or simplifying tasks as needed. Based on students’ play teacher focuses students’ awareness on, (1) need to practice technique, (2) make decisions about how to use skills to play the game, or (3) how to play tactically to challenge opponent(s). Students then work on technique or play a game with a co-operative then competitive focus. If able students can choose to play a game with a scoring system. Teacher can then develop game structure, introduce new modified game or play culminating game. Culminating game designed to progress students towards the adult game structure. Culminating game develops from tactical and skills taught in the modified games. When students able to play the game use the GPAI form to assess game performance.. Game Learner Learning Context Learning Context Modified game designed to emphasize skill and tactical use by the learners Strategic Play Co-op play between learners based on game structure Strategic Play “Why need it?” Technique Practice BM skills to enable off-the- ball movements, or EH skills to use object in game. Decision Making Movement behaviour in relation to the game environment (space, object, rules & opponent) Tactic Play competitive game using space, force & time components, selecting and executing skills. Technique “How to do it?” Decision “What to do?” Tactical “Player-in-situation” Teacher- in-situation decides Culminating Game Game performance assessment Culminating Competitive game based on adult game structure. In time GPAI assess with peer observer

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