2Gases have properties which we can observe with our senses These properties include: pressure (p), temperature, mass, and the volume (V) which contains the gas.
3Gas in a BalloonGas molecules inside a volume (a balloon) are constantly moving around freely.During this molecular motion they frequently collide with each other and with the surface of any enclosure there may be (in a small balloon there are many billions of collisions each second).
4Factors that Affect Gas Pressure What changes might affect the pressure of a gas in a container?TemperatureVolumeNumber of particles
5Describing Gas Behavior Chapter 3Section 2 Behavior of GasesDescribing Gas BehaviorTemperature Temperature is a measure of how fast the particles in an object are moving.The faster the particles are moving, the more energy they have.Volume Volume is the amount of space that an object takes up. Because gas particles spread out, the volume of any gas depends on the container that the gas is in.
6Describing Gas Behavior, continued Chapter 3Section 2 Behavior of GasesDescribing Gas Behavior, continuedPressure The amount of force exerted on a given area of surface is called pressure. You can think of pressure as the number of times the particles of a gas hit the inside of their container.
7Robert Boyle investigated the relationship between the volume of a gas and its pressure
8Volume and Pressure Relationship Reducing the volume of a gas increases its pressure if the temperature of the gas and the number of particles are constant
9Volume vs PressureWhen he changed the pressure the volume responded in the opposite direction.
10Boyle’s LawBoyle’s Law states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure if the temperature and the number of particles are constant.
11A practical application of Boyle’s Law is the action of a syringe. When fluids are drawn into a syringe, the volume inside the syringe is increased.the pressure decreases on the insidethe pressure on the outside of the syringe is greaterFluids are forced into the syringe.
12pushing the plunger in decreases the volume on the inside increases the pressure inside and makes it greater than outsidefluids are forced out.
13The bubbles exhaled by a scuba diver grow as the approach the surface of the ocean. Deep sea fish die when brought to the surface.Pushing in the plunger of a plugged-up syringe decreases the volume of air trapped under the plunger.
14Charles’ LawDoubling the temperature of a gas doubles its volume, as long as the pressure of the gas and the amount of gas isn't changed.
15Temperature Pressure Relationship The pressure of a gas increases if the temperature increases.
16Why does gas pressure increase when the temperature increases? The particles in a gas are moving. They bump into the walls creating a pressure.When a gas is heated, its particles speed up.
17There are two ways that this increases the pressure: the faster particles bump into the container walls more ofteneach collision is harder because the particles are moving faster.
18A football inflated inside and then taken outdoors on a winter day shrinks slightly. A slightly underinflated rubber life raft left in bright sunlight swells upThe plunger on a turkey syringe thermometer pops out when the turkey is done
19Gas Behavior LawsBoyle’s Law Boyle’s law states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas is inversely related to pressure.P1V1 = P2V2Charles’s Law Charles’s law states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas changes in the same way that the temperature of the gas changes.T1V2 = T2V1
22The Combined Gas Law Combination of Boyle’s and Charles’ laws The volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the pressure.P1V P2V2T1 = T2
23 How You BreatheYour lungs are are made of spongy, elastic tissue that stretches and constricts as you breathe.The airways that bring air into the lungs are made of smooth muscle and cartilage, allowing the airways to constrict and expand.
24What we need is a way to create air pressure to draw the air into our bodies. Atmospheric pressure is about 760 mm Hg. Since the flow is always from an higher to lower, we have to be able to make our respiratory tract have a lower pressure than 760 mm Hg.
25How can we decrease the pressure within our respiratory tract?
26This is the trick. In order to decrease the pressure within our respiratory tract, we have to expand our container, our chest. If we can expand our chest, the air pressure within will fall, and air will rush into our respiratory tract.
27InhalingWhen you inhale, the diaphragm and the muscles between your ribs contract and expand the chest cavity.
28This expansion lowers the pressure in the chest cavity below the outside air pressure. Air then flows in through the airways (from high pressure to low pressure) and inflates the lungs.
30When you exhale, the diaphragm and rib muscles relax and the chest cavity gets smaller. The decrease in volume of the cavity increases the pressure in the chest cavity above the outside air pressure.Air from the lungs (high pressure) then flows out of the airways to the outside air (low pressure). The cycle then repeats with each breath.