Presentation on theme: "GeoSpatial Systems – Metaknowledge Mashup Dan Rickman GeoSpatial SG."— Presentation transcript:
GeoSpatial Systems – Metaknowledge Mashup Dan Rickman GeoSpatial SG
Agenda What are GIS What is GeoSpatial Data Data management issues Neo-Geography Standards Current and future developments
What are GeoSpatial Systems? Known as Geographic Information Systems, Spatial Information Systems Enables capture, modelling, storage, retrieval, sharing, manipulation and analysis of geographically referenced data Not CAD! Database is at the heart – as is attribute data Model developing – perhaps GeoSpatial data better seen as attribute of alphanumeric business information Presentation does not have to be map-based in all cases Key element is spatial indexing – uses different techniques to alphanumeric indexing
What is Geospatial Information? - 1 Spatial data which relates to the surface of the Earth Geodetic reference system as base e.g. WGS84 used for Global Positioning System (Earth as an ellipsoid), Latitude and Longitude (Earth as a sphere) Ordnance Survey (GB) define National Grid – projection onto flat surface – NB: OS(NI) use Irish grid Spatial relationships – defined around concept of neighbourhood – relates to two laws of geography: Most things influence most other things in some way Nearby things are usually more similar than things which are far apart
What is Geospatial Information? - 2 Unstructured – spaghetti data Topology – information structured as networks, polygons GeoSpatial information requires metadata – e.g. minimal information such as map projection used GeoSpatial information may also temporal modelling – e.g. farm subsidies vary as utilisation and legislation change Field-based model versus object-based model of space, e.g. rainfall versus buildings on which rain falls GeoSpatial information requires ontology –What is the real world, how classified Relates to semantics
Where used? Examples Central government – DEFRA, ODPM, Land Registry, ONS Local government – planning, highways authorities Utilities – physical and logical network Insurance – flood plains Health – epidemiology Travel, multi-modal route planning More widespread use – addresses, postcode based data against regional boundaries, infrastructure (geographies used to divide country, catchment area) Fiat boundaries verus bona fide boundaries – what is real world how do we structure it?
Structured geo-database Paradigm shift? Relational Database (Attribute data) Spatial Data (proprietary format) ERP CRM Real Time/Engineering Systems Spatially extended RDBMS -Complex data types for spatial data -Computational geometry -Spatial indexing -DDL and DML extensions
Networks and Topology Routing Connectivity Explicit spatial relationships Can be complex - one way, - restricted turn - average speed …
Terrain and 3D Line of sight Radio Propagation Flood Water Pressure
Temporal Time as a dimension or measure How things change over time
Geospatial data modelling Field-based model versus object-based model Geographic Information Systems are object-based in practice Most common field based information, e.g. Digital Elevation Model (line of sight applications), attached to objects Objects rely on field-based model, i.e. spatial co-ordinates Initiatives such as Digital National Framework encourage organisations to structure data on references to objects, not re- capture and duplicate data GeoSpatial equivalent of referential integrity Nevertheless duplication, lack of (referential) integrity is common place and hard to eradicate
Digital National Framework Capture information once and use many times Benefits: –avoid cost of duplicate data capture –benefit through 3rd party data maintenance (i.e. avoid cost of maintaining one's own data) –benefit of improved data management especially where COU is used to identify area of change (which can then be used to focus and improve maintenance of non-spatial business object data, as appropriate) Capture at the highest resolution possible Benefit: –avoid re-capture later on –improve potential for data interoperability Publish lower resolutions from this data - if required –avoids data recapture Use existing proven standards –provides framework, avoids costs of "re-inventing the wheel" NB: sort of benefit one would expect from a strategy!
In search of the BLPU Basic Land and Property Unit Holy grail of industry – no Da Vinci code produced yet! Example of Ordnance Survey Master Map (OSMM): "St Mary's football stadium, Southampton" is one object Typical detached house and its plot of land, likewise Complex entities such as "Southampton railway station" are defined in terms multiple objects: one for the main building, several for the platforms, one more for pedestrian bridge over the tracks. (NB: See Wikipedia article on TOID) Defining the candidate BLPU, their lifecycles and their attribute data and verifying that these are meaningful/practicable from the wide variety of business processes which apply to the BLPU and the aggregate entities which are created from them Dependencies so that data sets are based on the BLPU wherever possible limited by business use, e.g. field use change quite different from a tenant/owner perspective
Evolution of geographic information 1950 2010 paper records digital records database records paper mapping digital mapping geographic information 1970 1990
Raster map data Scanned ortho-rectified map or map-based data – metadata is co- ordinates, projection, extent For example Google Maps/Google Earth, Microsoft Virtual Earth Traditionally stored outside the database as external files, analogous to vector data storage, e.g. Oracle 10g GeoRaster Data stored as BLOBs, metadata required regarding number of bytes per pixel, compression algorithms and so on Benefits limited as intelligence in map requires interpretation Still limited progress on map-based pattern recognition – there are semi-automated solutions from companies such as Laser- Scan
Benefits of integration Geo-spatial data mining –Spatial links –Shipman example Visualisation Provide new ways of linking data –Avoid capturing data e.g. DNF –Maintenance of data Lower costs of integration and delivery at front-end Back-end integration still an issue – data Reduce endless data cleaning – as part of information management strategy Reduce data maintenance costs Improve data in business – does this matter?
Geospatial - Drivers Awareness Current use of data Front end integration – Mashups Back end – Database Data providers –Ordnance Survey –Developing middle/large scale market –Open source data –Free our data
EDRM Electronic document and records management Increase usage in local/central government due to Freedom of Information act Contain potentially significant geospatial data Most common example is address Requires capture of appropriate metadata or appropriate pattern recognition to identify addresses Requires gazetteers to provide reference to spatial co-ordinates NB: most familiar gazetteer – list of streets in AtoZ maps
Costs Hardware – no special hardware required Network – bandwidth generally adequate Software – Increasingly delivered through thin clients SOA – promise of mashups (WMS/WFS, Google, Yahoo, Microsoft), GeoRSS Development skills – limited specialist skills required Data –Still expensive –Complex –Requires re-engineering/data management –Boring issue – drivers often hidden in BAU
Standards GeoSpatial widely used – in database technology, web-based systems and developing IS architecture. Organisations already exist -BCS must be relevant Open GeoSpatial Consortium - http://www.opengeospatial.org/ http://www.opengeospatial.org/ ISO TC211 (GI/Geomatics) - http://www.isotc211.org/http://www.isotc211.org/ BSI Committee for GI (http://www.gistandards.org.uk/)http://www.gistandards.org.uk/ Association for Geographic Information (http://www.agi.org.uk)http://www.agi.org.uk A topic for parliamentarians (EU e.g. INSPIRE http://inspire.jrc.it/ & Westminster e.g. GI Panel http://www.gipanel.org.uk/gipanel/ Already an issue for business – significant investmenthttp://www.gipanel.org.uk/gipanel/ Needs to be a credible BCS specialist group Provide voice for BCS in GeoSpatial issues Public policy - Free our data?
GSG: WHY Benefits for BCS –Embracing part of cultural change within IS/IT/IM Microsoft, Google and Oracle significant investment and developments Prominence in Web 2.0 sites, e.g. www.platial.com (Collaborative atlas)www.platial.com Enabling technologies/architecture such as SOA Seen as being relevant –BCS recovering lost ground GIS SG previously existed –No vendor tie in – no conflict of interest BCS recruitment mechanism for potential BCS members
GSG: WHY How we address GeoSpatial issues? –Vendor, academic, end user/ business experience –Survey and consensus of Group Members How do we convey this message ? –Meetings minimum once a quarter, but ideally every 6 weeks. –A positive effort to hold meetings in the nations & regions. –Contribution to discussions, events (representation). –Web site communication –Email bulletins –Press
Summary Geospatial now becoming mainstream Significant developments in market, e.g. Pitney Bowes purchase of MapInfo, increasing demand for linking BI with GIS Neo-Geography and wider awareness drive use of geospatial data However data availability and quality are key issues, implications of this not always well understood Metadata and catalogue standards exist not always integrated with wider standards and not always well implemented or implemented at all …