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English, French, and the worlds languages Dik Bakker Lancaster University.

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Presentation on theme: "English, French, and the worlds languages Dik Bakker Lancaster University."— Presentation transcript:

1 English, French, and the worlds languages Dik Bakker Lancaster University

2 2 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH

3 3 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH Some: English is their only language mother tongue

4 4 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH Some: English is their only language mother tongue ?

5 5 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH Some: English is their only language mother tongue Some: English + other language(s):

6 6 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH Some: English is their only language mother tongue Some: English + other language(s): > both are mother tongue multilingual

7 7 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH Some: English is their only language mother tongue Some: English + other language(s): > both are mother tongue multilingual ?

8 8 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH Some: English is their only language mother tongue Some: English + other language(s): > both are mother tongue multilingual > second language

9 9 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH Some: English is their only language mother tongue Some: English + other language(s): > both are mother tongue multilingual > 2 nd language: SOUND(bad / bat; that / sat)

10 10 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH Some: English is their only language mother tongue Some: English + other language(s): > both are mother tongue multilingual > 2 nd language: SOUND WORDS(colinder thing)

11 11 Speaker of a language Everyone in this room speaks ENGLISH Some: English is their only language mother tongue Some: English + other language(s): > both are mother tongue multilingual > 2 nd language: SOUND WORDS WORD ORDER (I have it seen)

12 12 Speaker of a language Everyone in ENGLAND speaks ENGLISH Either as a first or a second language

13 13 Speaker of a language Everyone in ENGLAND speaks ENGLISH Either as a first or a second language The same English everywhere in England ?

14 14 English England ENGLISH

15 15 English EnglandLancashire ENGLISHLANCASHIRE DIALECT

16 16 English EnglandLancashireLancaster ENGLISHLANCASHIRELANCASTER DIALECT ACCENT

17 17 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire:

18 18 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire: That were me brother what went to America

19 19 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire: That were me brother what went to America was my who

20 20 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire: That were me brother what went to America was my who ?

21 21 Dialects Dialects: English Lancashire: That were me brother what went to America was my who Standard English

22 22 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects

23 23 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbrian Geordie Tyke

24 24 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbrian Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie

25 25 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbrian Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie SOUTH:Cockney RP

26 26 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbrian Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie SOUTH:Cockney Received Pronunciation (BBC English)

27 27 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbria Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie SOUTH:Cockney Received Pronunciation (BBC English) STANDARD: Different, Not Better

28 28 Dialects English in the UK = around 45 dialects NORTH: Lancashire Cumbria Geordie Tyke MIDDLE:Scouse Brummie SOUTH:Cockney Received Pronunciation (BBC English) STANDARD: Writing Education Radio/TV

29 29 Dialects English = Lancashire Cumbrian Geordie Tyke Scouse Brummie Cockney RP ( = standard) …

30 30

31 31 Western Europe

32 32 English Spanish Portuguese French Dutch Danish Icelandic Italian German Western Europe

33 33 English Spanish Portuguese French Dutch Danish Icelandic German Italian Year 2009

34 34 English? Spanish? Portuguese? French? Dutch? Danish? Icelandic? German? Italian? Year 100 BC

35 35 - Year 100 BC

36 36 Celtic Year 100 BC

37 37 Celtic Germanic Year 100 BC

38 38 Celtic Germanic ????? Year 100 BC

39 39 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 100 BC

40 40 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 100 BC

41 41 Year 100 BC Celtic

42 42 Year 50 BC Celtic Julius Caesar

43 43 Year 50 BC Celtic Roman Legions

44 44 Year 50 BC Celtic Roman Legions

45 45 Year 0

46 46 Year 0 Latin?

47 47 Year 0 Vulgar Latin

48 48 Year 0 Vulgar Latin = dialects + 2 nd language

49 49 Year 0 Romance

50 50 Year 0 Celtic Romance

51 51 Year 100 AD Celtic Romance +

52 52 Year 150 AD Celtic Romance + Lingua Franca

53 53 Year 200 AD Celtic Romance Bilingual

54 54 Year 250 AD Celtic Romance Bilingual

55 55 Year 300 AD Celtic Romance Monolingual

56 56 Year 350 AD Romance Monolingual

57 57 Year 400 AD Romance Legions

58 58 Year 450 AD Romance Germanic: Franks Visigoths

59 59 Year 600 AD Franks

60 60 Year 600 AD French Germanic Romance Celtic +

61 61 French Germanic Romance Celtic +

62 62 Celtic Germanic Latin Year 100 BC

63 63 Year 600 AD Portuguese Spanish Italian French Rumanian

64 64 Portuguese Spanish Italian French Rumanian Romance

65 65 Portuguese Spanish Italian French Rumanian Romance Language Family

66 66 Year 100 BC Germanic Celtic Latin

67 67 Year 400 AD Celtic Germanic Angels Romance

68 68 Year 800 AD German Celtic Romance Dutch English

69 69 Year 600 AD French

70 70 Year 800 AD French

71 71 Year 1000 AD French

72 72 Year 1066 AD French ?

73 73 Year 1066 AD French Battle of Hastings

74 74

75 : French = Court Language

76 76 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH (1100 AD) changed to (FR)ENGLISH (1300 AD)

77 77 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English

78 78 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English CLIMBASCEND

79 79 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English CLIMBASCEND LOVEADORE

80 80 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English CLIMBASCEND LOVEADORE QUICKRAPID

81 81 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English CLIMBASCEND LOVEADORE QUICKRAPID SHEEPMUTTON

82 82 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English CLIMBASCEND LOVEADORE QUICKRAPID SHEEPMUTTON DEERVENISON

83 83 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English CLIMBASCEND LOVEADORE QUICKRAPID SHEEPMUTTON DEERVENISON PIGPORC

84 84 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English CLIMBASCEND LOVEADORE QUICKRAPID SHEEPMUTTON DEERVENISON PIGPORC -VEGETABLE, CABBAGE

85 85 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English CLIMBASCEND LOVEADORE QUICKRAPID SHEEPMUTTON DEERVENISON PIGPORC -VEGETABLE, CABBAGE ?

86 86 Language Contact > Change ENGLISH changed to (Fr)english:English CLIMBASCEND LOVEADORE QUICKRAPID SHEEPMUTTON DEERVENISON PIGPORC -VEGETABLE, CABBAGE ?

87 87 Year 1000 AD French

88 88 Year 1500 AD French

89 89 Year 2000 AD French

90 90 Romance Languages

91 91 She always closes the window before having dinner. Romance Languages

92 92 Latin: claudit semper fenestram antequam cenat she-closes always window before she-eats Romance Languages

93 93 Latin: claudit semper fenestram antequam cenat she-closes always window before she-eats Romance Languages

94 94 Latin: claudit semper fenestram antequam cenat she-closes always - window before she-eats Romance Languages

95 95 Latin: claudit semper fenestram antequam cenat she-closes always - window before she-eats Romance Languages

96 96 Latin: claudit semper fenestram antequam cenat she-closes always window before she-eats Italian: chiude sempre la finestra- prima di cenare Romance Languages

97 97 Latin: claudit semper fenestram antequam cenat she-closes always window before she-eats Italian: chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare Spanish: siempre / cierra la ventana- antes de cenar Romance Languages

98 98 Latin: claudit semper fenestram antequam cenat she-closes always window before she-eats Italian: chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare Spanish: siempre cierra la ventana antes de cenar French: elle ferme toujours la fenêtre- avant de dîner Romance Languages

99 99 Year 2000 AD French

100 100 Dialects: Bourguignon Champenois Orleanais Gascon Languedoc Provençal Jersiais …

101 101 Dialects: Bourguignon Champenois Orleanais Gascon Languedoc Provençal Jersiais …

102 102 Standard French

103 103 Breton (Celtic)

104 104 Breton (Celtic) Flemish (Germanic) Alsatian (Germanic)

105 105 Breton (Celtic) Flemish (Germanic) Alsatian (Germanic) Corsican (Romance) Catalan (Romance)

106 106 Breton (Celtic) Flemish (Germanic) Alsatian (Germanic) Corsican (Romance) Catalan (Romance) Basque

107 107 Breton (Celtic) Flemish (Germanic) Alsatian (Germanic) Corsican (Romance) Catalan (Romance) Basque English

108 108

109 109

110 110

111 111 Language Families ROMANCE FRE ITA SPA

112 112 Language Families ROMANCE GERMANIC FRE ITA SPA ENG DUT GERM

113 113 Language Families ROMANCE GERMANIC CELTIC FRE ITA SPA ENG DUT GERM WEL GAE MANX

114 114 Family Relations English:motherthree

115 115 Family Relations English:motherthree Dutch: German:

116 116 Family Relations English:motherthree Dutch:moeder German:mutter

117 117 Family Relations English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei

118 118 Family Relations English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin: French: Spanish:

119 119 Family Relations English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:mater French:mère Spanish:madre

120 120 Family Relations English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:matertres French:mèretrois Spanish:madretres

121 121 Family Relations English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:matertres French:mèretrois Spanish:madretres Gaelic: Welsh: Manx:

122 122 Family Relations English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:matertres French:mèretrois Spanish:madretres Gaelic:màthair Welsh:mam Manx:moir

123 123 Family Relations English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:matertres French:mèretrois Spanish:madretres Gaelic:màthairtrì Welsh:mamtair Manx:moirtree

124 124 Family Relati English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:matertres French:mèretrois Spanish:madretres Gaelic:màthairtrì Welsh:mamtair Manx:moirtree ?

125 125 Language Families ROMANCE GERMANIC CELTIC FRE ITA SPA ENG DUT GERM WEL GAE MANX EUROPEAN

126 126 Language Families ROMANCE GERMANIC CELTIC FRE ITA SPA ENG DUT GERM WEL GAE MANX EUROPEAN 2000 AD BC

127 127 European

128 128 Language Families SANSKRIT HINDI GUJARATI

129 129 Language Families SANSKRIT HINDI GUJARATI ?

130 130 Indic English:motherthree

131 131 Indic English:mother Sanskrit: Hindi: Gujarati:

132 132 Indic English:mother Sanskrit:mata Hindi:maataa Gujarati:ma

133 133 Indic English:motherthree Sanskrit:mata Hindi:maataa Gujarati:ma

134 134 Indic English:motherthree Sanskrit:matatraya Hindi:maataatina Gujarati:matraan

135 135 Indic English:motherthree Sanskrit:matatraya Hindi:maataatina Gujarati:matraan

136 136 Language Families ROMANCE GERMANIC CELTIC FRE ITA SPA ENG DUT GERM WEL GAE MNX SANS HIN GUJ EUROPEAN INDIC

137 137 Indic

138 138 Indic + European English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:matertres French:mèretrois Spanish:madretres Gaelic:màthairtrì Welsh:mamtair Manx:moirtree Sanskrit:matatraya Hindi:maataatina Gujarati:matraan

139 139 Indic + Euro English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:matertres French:mèretrois Spanish:madretres Gaelic:màthairtrì Welsh:mamtair Manx:moirtree Sanskrit:matatraya Hindi:maataatina Gujarati:matraan

140 140 Indic + Euro English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:matertres French:mèretrois Spanish:madretres Gaelic:màthairtrì Welsh:mamtair Manx:moirtree Sanskrit:matatraya Hindi:maataatina Gujarati:matraan

141 141 Indic + Euro English:motherthree Dutch:moederdrie German:mutterdrei Latin:matertres French:mèretrois Spanish:madretres Gaelic:màthairtrì Welsh:mamtair Manx:moirtree Sanskrit:matatraya Hindi:maataatina Gujarati:matraan ?

142 142 Language Families ROMANCE GERMANIC CELTIC FRE ITA SPA ENG DUT GERM WEL GAE IRI SANS HIN GUJ EUROPEAN INDIC

143 143 Language Families ROMANCE GERMANIC CELTIC FRE ITA SPA ENG DUT GERM WEL GAE IRI SANS HIN GUJ EUROPEAN INDIC INDO-EUROPEAN

144 144 Indo-European

145 145 Indo-European

146 146 Not Indo-European English:motherthree

147 147 Not Indo-European English:motherthree Turkish:annaüç

148 148 Not Indo-European English:motherthree Turkish:annaüç Arabic:ummtlata

149 149 Not Indo-European English:motherthree Turkish:annaüç Arabic:ummtlata Japanese:okasanmittsu

150 150 Not Indo-European English:motherthree Turkish:annaüç Arabic:ummtlata Japanese:okasanmittsu Samoan:tinātolu

151 151 Not Indo-European English:motherthree Turkish:annaüç Arabic:ummtlata Japanese:okasanmittsu Samoan:tinātolu Maya:naóox

152 152 Not Indo-European English:motherthree Turkish:annaüç Arabic:ummtlata Japanese:okasanmittsu Samoan:tinātolu Maya:naóox ?

153 153 Other languages and families Indo-European:200 languages How many in the world??? ?

154 154 Other languages and families Languages: Currently spoken: 7,000

155 155 Other languages and families Languages: Currently spoken: 7,000 (ONLY 3% Indo-European!!!)

156 156

157 157

158 158 Languages Languages: Currently spoken:7,000 Extinct (known):500

159 159 Languages Languages: Currently spoken:7,000 Extinct (known):500 (Latin, Etruscan, Hittite, Babylonian, Old Egyptian, …)

160 160 Languages Languages: Currently spoken:7,000 Extinct (known):500 (Latin, Etruscan, Hittite, Babylonian, Old Egyptian, … 1 more every week

161 161 Languages Languages: Currently spoken:7,000 Extinct:500 Language families:100

162 162 Language families AUSTRONESIAN1200 languages

163 163 Austronesian

164 164 Austronesian

165 165 Language families AUSTRONESIAN1200 … AMERICAN INDIAN 600

166 166 Austric American Indian

167 167 Austric American Indian > 1492 FRENCH SPANISH PORTUGUESE ENGLISH

168 168 Language families AUSTRONESIAN1200 … AMERICAN INDIAN 600 … INDO-EUROPEAN 200

169 169 Language families AUSTRONESIAN1200 … AMERICAN INDIAN 600 … INDO-EUROPEAN 200 … ESKIMO 10

170 170 Eskimo-Aleut

171 171 Language families AUSTRONESIAN1200 … AMERICAN INDIAN 600 … INDO-EUROPEAN 200 … ESKIMO 10 … ISOLATES

172 172 Language families AUSTRONESIAN1200 … AMERICAN INDIAN 600 … INDO-EUROPEAN 200 … ESKIMO 10 … ISOLATES ?

173 173 Isolates

174 174 Isolates Basque

175 175 Isolate: Basque motherhaurdun

176 176 Isolate: Basque motherhaurdun suneguzki

177 177 Isolate: Basque motherhaurdun suneguzki nosesudur

178 178 Isolate: Basque motherhaurdun suneguzki nosesudur bicycletxirringa

179 179 Isolate: Basque motherhaurdun suneguzki nosesudur bicycletxirringa football… ?

180 180 Isolate: Basque motherhaurdun suneguzki nosesudur bicycletxirringa footballfutbol

181 181 Isolate: Basque motherhaurdun suneguzki nosesudur bicycletxirringa footballfutbol SPANISH

182 182 Isolate: Basque motherhaurdun suneguzki nosesudur bicycletxirringa footballfutbol SPANISH ENGLISH

183 183 ?

184 184 ?


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