Presentation on theme: "Youth, Crime and Media MEP208 9. Football hooliganism."— Presentation transcript:
Youth, Crime and Media MEP208 9. Football hooliganism
Hooliganism timeline 1898: the term hooligan first in common usage, assoc. with Irish w-class living in Britain (Pearson 1983) 1966: the label hooligan first attached to violence at football grounds, assoc. with skinhead groups (Osgerby 1998) 1970s/early 1980s: escalating violence 1985: various incidents, notably Heysel 1989: Hillsborough disaster
Causes of hooliganism? Mindless aggression by non-football fans? – NO Reactions to the behaviour / performance of players? – UNLIKELY Economic deprivation – POSSIBLY Alcohol and other drugs – POSSIBLY Incitement to national, racial or religious hatred – POSSIBLY
Key policy initiatives in response to football hooliganism (1) Lang Report (1969) – barriers erected at grounds to enable the segregation of young people from other spectators Football Spectators Act (1989) – proposed ID cards and imposed restrictions on travelling abroad Taylor Report (1990) – barriers removed, requirements for all-seater stadia, alcohol prohibited, player misbehaviour and sensational media coverage criticised
Key policy initiatives in response to football hooliganism (2) Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (1994) – no unauthorised ticket sales, no chanting or gesturing deemed threatening, abusive or insulting Football Disorder Act (2000) – abolishes the distinction between domestic and international banning orders, widens the definition of football-related offences to include journeys to and from the match (and 24 hours either side of kick-off time)
Changing structure of football as a game / industry (Ian Taylor 1971) During 20thC shift from amateur / local to professional / international contexts Pre-1940s: football clubs provide for a participatory democracy Post-1940s: supporters increasingly excluded from club decision-making A soccer subculture forms – hooligans are labelled / criminalised by police, etc.
Disorder and moral panics (Muncie 2004: 121) Identification of a subversive minority... Simplification of the cause... Stigmatisation of those involved... Stirring of public indignation... Stamping down hard!!!
The social order of fan activity (Marsh et al. 1997) Rules of disorder - hooligan groups are hierarchical, tightly organised, self-policed Careers are laid out: 1.NOVICES – c.10-12 years 2.ROWDIES – 12-17 years 3.TOWN BOYS – 17-c.25 years Roles assigned to ROWDIES: chant leader, aggro leader, nutter, hooligan, organiser, fighter, heavy drinker
Violent w-class masculine style (Williams et al 1989) Most violent hooligan offenders are men from rough lower working class Emphasis on respectable appearance to conceal unrespectable behaviour Macho reputations rest on varying degrees of hostility to outsiders Socialisation of others inc. own children and disaffected youth from respectable w-class or m-class backgrounds
Unorganised hooliganism (Garland and Rowe 2000) Policing of organised firms has benefited from improved intelligence But spontaneous trouble (often far outside stadia) more difficult to monitor CCTV is too slow and cumbersome at reacting to flashpoints of disorder, and consequently missed these types of incident (p.155)