Presentation on theme: "Motion in Two and Three Dimensions; Vectors"— Presentation transcript:
1Motion in Two and Three Dimensions; Vectors Chapter 3Motion in Two and Three Dimensions; Vectors
2Vectors and Scalars A vector has magnitude as well as direction. Some vector quantities: displacement, velocity, force, momentumA scalar has only a magnitude.Some scalar quantities: mass, time, temperature
3Addition of Vectors – Graphical Methods Adding the 2 vectorsSubtracting 2 vectors
4Addition of Vectors – Graphical Methods Consider a motion in two dimensions. Suppose, you move to the right 8.0 km and then 4.0 km up. What is your displacement?By using the Pythagorean Theorem, we have
5Adding Vectors by Components Any vector can be expressed as the sum of two other vectors, which are called its components. Usually the other vectors are chosen so that they are perpendicular to each other.
6Adding Vectors by Components The components are found using trigonometric functions.
7Adding Vectors by Components Draw a diagramChoose x and y axes.Resolve each vector into x and y components.Calculate each component using sines and cosines.Add the components in each direction.To find the length and direction of the vector, use:
8Adding Vectors by Components Resultant:Direction:
9Vector V1 is 6. 6 units long and points along the negative x axis Vector V1 is 6.6 units long and points along the negative x axis. Vector V2 is 8.5 units long and points at an angle of 45o to the positive x axis. (a) What are the x and y components of each vector? (b) Determine the sum (magnitude and angle).8.(a)(b)The sum has a magnitude of 6.0 units, and is 84o clockwise from the – negative x-axis, or 96o counterclockwise from the positive x-axis.V =
10Unit vectors i and jExpress each vector as the sum of 2 perpendicular vectors. It is common to use the horizontal and vertical directions using unit vectors i and jExample:A = Ax + Ay= Axi + Ayj , where Ax and Ay are the horizontal and vertical componentsB = Bx + By = Bxi + Byj, where Bx and By are the horizontal and vertical componentsSome useful properties of unit vectorsi.j=0; i.i=1; j.j=1A.B = AxBx+AyBy
11angle = 63.4 o, below the x-axis Three vectors are expressed as A = 4i – j, B = -3i + 2j, andC = -3j. If R = A+ B + C, find the magnitude and direction of R.R = A+ B + C = i-2jmagnitude = 2.24angle = 63.4 o, below the x-axis
12Projectile MotionA projectile is an object moving in two dimensions under the influence of Earth's gravity; its path is a parabola.
13Projectile MotionThis photograph shows two balls that start to fall at the same time. The one on the right has an initial speed in the x-direction. It can be seen that vertical positions of the two balls are identical at identical times, while the horizontal position of the yellow ball increases linearly.
14Projectile MotionA projectile can be understood by analyzing the horizontal and vertical motions separately.The speed in the x-direction is constantin the y-direction the object moves with constant acceleration g.
15Projectile MotionIf an object is launched at an initial angle of θ0 with the horizontal, the analysis is similar except that the initial velocity has a vertical component.
16Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion Projectile motion is motion with constant acceleration in two dimensions, where the acceleration is g and is down.
17A diver running 1.8 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliff and 3.0 s later reaches the water below. How high was the cliff, and how far from its base did the diver hit the water?Choose downward to be the positive y direction. The origin will be at the point where the diver dives from the cliff. In the horizontal direction,andIn the vertical direction,and the time of flight is t = 3.0 sThe height of the cliff is found from applying to the vertical motion.The distance from the base of the cliff to where the diver hits the water is found from the horizontal motion at constant velocity:
18A football is kicked at ground level with a speed of 18 A football is kicked at ground level with a speed of m/s at an angle of 35.0º to the horizontal. How much long later does it hit the ground?Choose the point at which the football is kicked the origin, and choose upward to be the positive y direction. When the football reaches the ground again, the y displacement is 0. For the football,35.0 oV0Vx0Vy0- Vy0Vx0and the final y velocity will be the opposite of the starting y velocity. to find the time of flight use
20A fire hose held near the ground shoots water at a speed of 6. 8 m/s A fire hose held near the ground shoots water at a speed of 6.8 m/s. At what angle(s) should the nozzle point in order that the water land 2.0 m away ? Why are there two different angles? Sketch the two trajectories.19. Apply the range formulaThere are two angles because each angle gives the same range. If one angle is, thenis also a solution. The two paths are shown in the graph.
21Addition of Vectors – Graphical Methods Even if the vectors are not at right angles, they can be added graphically by using the “tail-to-tip” method.
22Addition of Vectors – Graphical Methods The parallelogram method may also be used;
23Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar In order to subtract vectors, we define the negative of a vector, which has the same magnitude but points in the opposite direction.Then we add the negative vector:
24Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar A vector V can be multiplied by a scalar c; the result is a vector cV that has the same direction but a magnitude cV. If c is negative, the resultant vector points in the opposite direction.
25Addition of Vectors – Graphical Methods Adding the vectors in the opposite order gives the same result: