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**BY: Ian Ramdeen, Chris, David, Evan Harrison, and Brent Richardson**

Physics and Football BY: Ian Ramdeen, Chris, David, Evan Harrison, and Brent Richardson

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Football American football is obviously popular in the U.S., especially in the South. Did you know that physics can also be found in football such as a football being a projectile, momentum of a player, force applied in a tackle, and forces used in a kick?

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**Projectile in football**

A projectile is any object that can be thrown. In football quarterbacks throw the football for several miles at quick speeds. If a quarterback wants to throw a long pass, then he is going to have to throw at the right angle and right velocity.

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Practice Problem If a quarterback throws a football at 20m/s and at an angle of 60 degrees, how far did he throw the ball? Formula: R=Vo^2 sin (2 theta)/g Theta=60 degrees V=20m/s G=9.8m/s^2 Solve for R Solution: R=20^2 sin (2*60)/9.8 400sin(120)/(9.8)= meters

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Physics Problem If the same qb throws a football at 25m/s and at an angle of 50 degrees, how far did he throw the ball? Solution: R=25^2sin2(50)/9.8 63 yards. Wow! What an impressive throw! He gets my MVP vote.

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Momentum Everyone knows that momentum is a measure that is equal to mass times velocity. This applies to football in this manner because football players of different sizes are running at fast velocities.

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Physics Problem If a 125 kg (275 lb) lineman is running down the field at 9.8 m/s, what is his momentum. Formula: p=mv M=125 kg v=9.8 m/s Find p (momentum) Solution: p=125 (9.8 m/s) =1225 kg-m/s

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New Problem If this same lineman runs at 7.5 m/s, what is his momentum? Solution: 125(7.5)=937.5 kg-m/s

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Tacking and Impact One of the biggest concepts of physics applied to football is force. A force of a tackle can have huge impacts. If the impact of the tackle is huge, that can lead to a serious injury. If a running back is running with a huge momentum, a sudden tackle can come as a huge shock. (Rolando McClain gave this player a huge shock with this strong tackle).

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Physics Problem If a running back has a momentum of 950 kg-m/s, and the tackle occurs in .6 seconds, what would the force of the tackle be? Formula: F=impulse/t Impulse (Momentum but written as impulse in this case): 950 kg-m/s t=.6 seconds Find the Force Solution: F=(950 kg-m/s)/ (.6seconds)=1583 N

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New Problem If McClain tackles former Auburn running back Ben Tate in .4 seconds, and his momentum is 1000 kg-m/s, what is the force? Solution: F=1000/.4=2500N

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Physics and kicking Physics especially applies to the instance when a placekicker is trying to make a field goal. He has to make adjustments in order to make the attempt. He has to kick the ball at the right angle and has to kick the ball with a good force. He also needs to kick the ball well, so a good acceleration will enable the ball to go through the goal post. A good time while the ball is in the air enables the ball to go through the goal post.

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Physics Problem A place kicker must kick a football from a point 40 m from the goal and clear the crossbar 3.05 m high, and the ball leaves the ground with a speed of 25 m/s at an angle of 50 degrees to the horizontal at an acceleration of 9.8 m/s. How long does the ball stay in the air? Formula: D=ViT+(1/2)A(T^2) Given Vi=25m/s A=9.8 m/s D=40m T=? 40=25(T)+1/2(9.8)(T^2) 4.9(T^2)+25T-40=0 (multiply each side by 10) 40=25(T)+4.9(T^2) =-250 +/- the square root of divided by 98 seconds.

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**References http://www.lcse.umn.edu/speces/labs/catapult/index.html**

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