2During this unit we will – Further your understanding of the major belief systems that have dominated civilization for thousands of yeas.Engage in a variety of group activitiesSuccessfully complete several Graphic OrganizersSuccessfully complete a unit notes packetExamine several primary source documentsSuccessfully complete several DBQ assignmentSuccessfully complete one Unit exam, which will include one thematic essayHave fun and share a few laughs
3Do Now!!! Do Now, Now!!! TTYN What is a belief system? How many belief systems can you name?TTYN
6AnimismAnimism is a superstitious way of life that believes in spirit worship, fetishism and the worship of nature. Although manifesting itself in different ways, animism believes that everything in nature has a soul and that there is a spirit or force residing in every living and inanimate object, including animals, rocks, trees, mountains, rivers, volcanoes, heavenly bodies or other created objects. In light of the recent events in Japan, is it too far-fetched to believe that nature has a soul and that there is a spirit or force residing in everything?
7AnimismTimelineAnimism is characteristic of primitive social structures in tribal, often nomadic communities. It is typically associated with the early Bronze Age (3000 – 2000 BC) cultures of the pre-Christian era.Followers of Animism - The number is unknown. Almost all practicing Buddhist, Islamic, Hindu and Christian devotees of present day SE Asian societies also include in their belief systems elements of animism
8Hinduism Timeline Founder Geography Sacred Text Widely considered the world’s oldest religion. Many people suggest that Hinduism in not a religion, much like Christianity or Judaism, but more of a way of life. Hinduism evolved around 1500 BCEFounderNone. Hinduism derives from the word "India” and refers to traditions and philosophies that have evolved over thousands of yearsGeographySacred TextVedas and Upinshads
9Basic Tenants of Hinduism Universal Spirit or BrahmanHindu thinkers came to believe that everything in the universe was part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force called brahman. According to Swami Sivananda, one of the great Yoga masters of the 20th century“Brahman or the Supreme Self is beyond time and space, causation. He is limitless. He is tranquil. He shines with equal effulgence in all bodies. He cannot be any particular thing. He is Chaitanya or pure consciousness. He is Vastu, Atman or Brahman or the Supreme Self is the hidden treasure. It is the jewel of jewels. It is gem of gems. It is the imperishable, inexhaustible supreme wealth, which no dacoit can rob. It is Chintamani of Chintamanis that will give man whatever he wishes.”In other words, brahman is too complex an idea for most people to comprehend, so they worships gods that give a concrete form to brahman.
10Basic Tenants of Hinduism To Hindus, every person has an essential self, or atman. Atman is just another name for brahman. For Hindus, the ultimate goal of existence is to achieve moksha (MAHK SHUH), or union with brahman. To accomplish this – you must free yourself from selfish desires. Because Hindus believe that this goal cannot be completed in just one lifetime, they believe in reincarnation. Thus, through reincarnation, you are able to continue working towards moksha.KarmaAll actions of a person’s life that affect their next lifeDharmaReligious and moral duties. These duties vary according to class, occupation, gender, or age. By obeying one’s dharma, a person acquires merit for the next life.Hinduism provides direction to the daily lives of Hindus. It teaches that people should remain in their social group or caste
11HinduismCaste SystemThe Caste System is a rigid class structure based on Hinduism which is found in India. It is believed that if one leads a good life, following good karma and dharma, then they will be rewarded by being reincarnated as a person belonging to the next highest level in the Caste System. However, if one is wicked during their life, they will be demoted, and possibly even removed from the Caste System altogether. Outcasts, or Untouchables, are members of Hindu society thought to have been removed from the Caste System, with no hope of returning to it, due to their misdeeds in previous lives. Work that is deemed unclean for all other Hindus is reserved for these Outcasts.
12Complete on page 9 of Notes Packet HinduismComplete on page 9 of Notes PacketCaste System
13Complete on page 10 of Notes Packet HinduismComplete on page 10 of Notes PacketCaste SystemThe caste system is an important part of Hinduism. Caste are social groups into which people are born and out of which they cannot move during a lifetime.In Next LifeIn This LifeIf good and obeys caste rulesHigher CasteA PersonIs born intoa casteIf bad and breaks caste rulesLower Caste
14HinduismTTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about HinduismHinduismSacred TextsVedas andUpinshads
15Tripitaka or “Three Baskets of Wisdom” BuddhismTimelineBuddhism currently has about 376 million followers and is generally listed as the world's fourth largest religion. Buddhism shares many of the core concepts of Hinduism. Buddha or the “Enlightened One” was born a Hindu in 500 B.C.FounderSiaddhartha Gautama or BuddhaGeographySacred TextTripitaka or “Three Baskets of Wisdom”
16Buddhism Teachings ,Beliefs, and Origins Siddhartha was born into the Brahmin caste, and by all accounts, led a luxurious lifestyle. However, he was troubled by the human misery that he saw around him everyday. While meditating under a sacred tree, he found the answer to his question, and he was thereafter referred to as Buddha. Upon reflection, he deduced that desire was the root cause of all suffering. This idea has been recorded as the Four Noble TruthsFour Noble TruthsSiddhartha's philosophy of the nature of human suffering and its relation to desire is articulated by these four statements:Life is full of pain and suffering.Human desire causes this suffering.By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering.Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path
17Buddhism Eightfold Path The Wheel of Life is one of the most important symbols of Buddhism, as it represents the endless cycle of life through reincarnation and because each of its eight spokes represents one of the teachings of the Eightfold Path.Know that suffering is caused by desire.Be selfless and love all life.Do not lie, or speak without cause.Do not kill, steal, or commit other unrighteous acts.Do not do things which promote evil.Take effort to promote righteousness.Be aware of your physical actions, state of mind, and emotions.Learn to meditate.
18spiritual enlightenment BuddhismReincarnationBuddhists believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, which is similar to beliefs of Hinduism. However, Buddhists do not believe that deities are responsible for the phenomenon. In addition, the Caste System is rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual enlightenment.The concept of reincarnation can best be illustrated using an infinity symbol:Nirvanaspiritual enlightenmentWhat Does Nirvana mean to you?
19Do Now and then “Pair and Share” BuddhismDo Now and then “Pair and Share”In complete sentences, describe what Buddha might be suggesting with each of the following quite.1. “It is better to conquer yourself than to win a thousand battles. Then the victory is yours. It cannot be taken from you, not by angels or by demons, heaven or hell.”2. “All that man experiences springs out of his thoughts. If his thoughts are good, the words and deeds will also be good. The result of good thoughts, words and deeds will be happiness. This happiness never leaves the person whose thoughts are good. Happiness will always follow him like his shadow that never leaves him.”3. “Those who attempt to conquer hatred by hatred are like warriors who take weapons to overcome others who bear arms. This does not end hatred, but gives it room to grow. But, ancient wisdom has advocated a different timeless strategy to overcome hatred. This eternal wisdom is to meet hatred with non-hatred. The method of trying to conquer hatred through hatred never succeeds in overcoming hatred. But, the method of overcoming hatred through non-hatred is eternally effective. That is why that method is described as eternal wisdom.”
20BuddhismTTYN – complete the graphic organizer with some of the important facts regarding BuddhismBuddhismFounderSiddharth GautamaAKA Buddha
21JudaismDo Now (TTYN)Describe monotheistic and polytheisticJudaism is the oldest known monotheistic religion still practiced in the world today. Its fundamental teachings have been influential and are the basis for more recently developed religions such as Christianity and IslamFounderAbraham is generally recognized as the founder of Judaism due to his covenant with God. However, Moses is also considered a founder due to his role in the liberation of the Hebrews from Egypt, and his delivery of the Ten Commandments from Mount Sinai sometime around 2000 BCE.GeographyVocab: Define CovenantSacred TextThe Tanakh – The 1st 5 books comprise the Torah
22Judaism The World of Hebrews The Hebrews were among the many people who occupied the Fertile Crescent. As a consequence of this contact, they slowly developed their own ideas and beliefs.One of those beliefs was the belief in one God and that God was taking a hand in their development, which was subsequently recorded in what is known as the Torah – their most sacred text.The Jews were a nomadic people who originally settled in Mesopotamia. Eventually, they would migrate to what is present-day Palestine. By 1000 B.C. the Hebrews had established the kingdom of Israel.
23Judaism1200 BC Moses leads the Hebrews out of Egypt (slavery) where they wander for forty years in the wilderness of the Sinai. After receiving the Ten Commandments (from God) on Mount Sinai, Moses leads his people back to "the promised land" of Canaan where the Hebrews gain theirindependence, reestablish Jerusalem as their capital and rebuild their temple.930 BC The Hebrews split into the "ten Tribes" in the North controlling Israel and the the two tribes in the south controlling Judah (hence the term Jew). The division weakens the Hebrews who are later conquered by different peoples
24Judaism Belief in one God Belief in only one God we know as? According to the sacred scripture of the Hebrews (the Torah), God made a covenant to be the God of the Hebrews. The Hebrews were one of the nomadic groups who lived in the Fertile Crescent. According to tradition, the Hebrews became in enslaved in Egypt, and God helped them escape this slavery.According to Jewish belief, Jews are the “Chosen People because they were chosen to make the idea of one God known to the world.Around 1000 B.C., the Hebrews had developed the kingdom of Israel. They believed that God had promised them this land.
25Judaism Vocab: Define Diaspora 66 AD the Romans conquer Canaan (now called Palestine) and destroy the temple in Jerusalem (now the Wailing Wall). Jews begin migrating throughout the Roman empire in the Jewish Diaspora, although there have been some Jews living in Palestine since the time of Moses.The Diaspora spreads Jews throughout the Mediterranean World but they maintain their cohesion as an exclusive people through a common language (Hebrew), the teachings of Jewish scholars (Rabbis), a common set of written laws (in the Talmud), and a clear set of Jewish traditions (kosher food, religious observances, circumcision, etc.).Vocab: Define DiasporaIn this context, it refers to the 'exile’ that encompassed several forced expulsions of Israelites from what is now the states of Israel
26Judaism Judaism—basic facts/history First Monotheistic religion (1900 BCE)People of “the book”11thLargest religion in the worldPatriarch Abraham connects the major monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.Redefined conventional practices of morality and law, which provided a foundation for Western development in these areas.System became known as “ethical monotheism” –the belief in “one God who demands righteous behavior from His human creations”What are the Jewish Holy Books? The Torah(Law/teaching) is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition. Torah scroll
27Judaism Judaism—basic facts/history Talmud The Talmud is viewed as an “Oral Torah” written in the early first century.It is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history.What is the role of a Rabbi?They do not have specific powers in the Torah, but the Talmud gives them the authority to interpret it. He is someone who has learned the Torah, a teacher and a leader in ceremonies held in Jewish synagogues.What does “kosher” mean?Kosher foods are “fit” according to Jewish law, meaning the way in which an animal is slaughtered. Other examples include vegetables being inspected for insects, and carefully separating meat and dairy products from one another.
28JudaismTTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about JudaismJudaismSecred TextThe Torah
29Complete on page 13 in Notes Packet IslamComplete on page 13 in Notes Packet
30Islam Timeline and Founder Sacred Text Geography The Koran or Quran Founded by Muhammad, he was troubled with the greed of wealthy citizens. In 610 he experienced a revelation. He heard a voice proclaiming one true god, Allah.Sacred TextThe Koran or QuranGeography
31Islam Beliefs and Tenants of Islam Five Pillars of Islam Muhammad preached there was only ONE god, named ALLAH, and that all people were equal.Rich people should share their wealth with the poor. According to Muhammad, Allah measures the worth of a person by their devotion and good deedsThe Quran (holy book) are the revelations Muhammad experienced and wrote downQuran presents basic moral values of IslamVery similar to Judaism and ChristianityLays down specific rules for daily activitiesForbids eating pork, drinking or gamblingAlso contains rules governing marriage, divorce, family life, property and business practicesShari’ah: law of code, cannot be separated from religion in Islamic societyFive Pillars of IslamFive essential duties all Muslims must fulfillConfession of faithPrayerCharityFastingPilgrimage to Mecca
32Five essential duties all Muslims must fulfill Islam“Campfire”Working within your designated groups - your task is to make an educated guess as to what the Five Pillars of Islam mean. In other words, you need to identify what each Pillar requires of a “good” Muslim.Five Pillars of IslamFive essential duties all Muslims must fulfillConfession of faithPrayerCharityFastingPilgrimage to Mecca
33Five essential duties all Muslims must fulfill IslamPillar OneAll Muslims must confess their faithIt affirms oneness to an all powerful God(only believe in Allah)Respect Christians and JewsSecond PillarMuslims must pray five time’s a dayMust be facing Mecca, using the same set of words and motionsThird Pillargiving to charityIt reflects Islamic view that wealthy people should assist the poor and weekFourth PillarFasting or giving up food occurs in the ninth month of the Muslim calendar during RamadanNo eating or drinking sun up till sun down during this monthFifth PillarPilgrimage to Mecca, once in a lifetimeFive Pillars of IslamFive essential duties all Muslims must fulfillConfession of faithPrayerCharityFastingPilgrimage to Mecca
34Islam Spread of Islam Saw conquest as jihad Jihad- holy struggle to bring Islam to new landThe Quran permitted fair, defensive warfareMuslim warriors were assured a place in paradise if they died in battleChristians and Jews were allowed to practice their religions but must be loyal to Muslim rule and pay taxesDivided!Sunnis: 90%Believed caliph was a leader not a religious authorityAny Muslim could serve in office with acceptance of the peopleShiities (Shia)Believed caliph should be only descendents of Muhammad and his familyStress spirituality rather than political leadershipsIslam set the guidelines for the way people livedFamily LifeIt laid the rules for family, business and religious practicesEarly Islam stressed the equality of all believers before God, however men and women had distinct roles and rightsQuran told Muslims the men were responsible for womenA women’s social position was defined by her relationship as a wife, mother, sister or daughterWomen had to complete control over her own propertyEducation was important, all boys attended school
35Islam Family Life Islamic Achievements Islam set the guidelines for the way people livedIt laid the rules for family, business and religious practicesEarly Islam stressed the equality of all believers before God, however men and women had distinct roles and rightsQuran told Muslims the men were responsible for womenA women’s social position was defined by her relationship as a wife, mother, sister or daughterWomen had complete control over her own propertyEducation was important, all boys attended schoolIslamic AchievementsUsed Arabic not only to promote trade but to communicate with other peopleDuring 800’s Islamic world experienced a scientific awakeningDeveloped trigonometryAdopted Arabic concept of numerals and used them in a place value system (one used today)Accurately described solar eclipse and proved the moon affected the oceanBy the 1100’s Muslims determined the basic outline of Asia, Europe and North Africa and produced the first accurate map of the eastern hemisphereAstrolabe- instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the starsA doctor describes the circulation of blood and the functions of heart and kidney
36IslamTTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about IslamIslamSacred TextThe Quran
37Islam Lets finish up on Page 13 of our Notes Packet Finish up on page 13 in Notes PacketIslamLets finish up on Page 13 of our Notes Packet
39Christianity Geography Developed in Judea (now Israel), located in the Middle East bordering the Mediterranean Sea sometime around the year 30 CE (common era).FounderJesus of Nazareth and his disciples who helped spread his teachingsGeographySacred Text
40Christianity Teachings and Beliefs Because Christianity evolved from Judaism, there are certain concepts that these two religions share. For example, both Jews and Christians subscribe to the Ten Commandments found in the Book of Exodus. In addition, prophecies of Jewish prophets contained in several books of the Old Testament stated that God would send a savior, or messiah, to the people of Israel. While Judaism clearly states that this event has not yet occurred, Christians believe that Jesus of Nazareth was the Son of God, sent to redeem the world of sin. This has led the Christian faith to proclaim that there is a Holy Trinity, formed by the Creator (Father), Redeemer (Son), and Sustainer (Holy Spirit). Christians believe that these three entities are all part of a single higher power.Christianity: The world's largest religion
41Christianity Writing Exercises: Belief Systems Complete on page 16 of Notes PacketCompare and contrast Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.How was religious expansion a part of wider cultural diffusion?Explain how conquerors, missionaries, and traders contributed to the spread of religions.
42ConfucianismConfucius lived in China during the Chou Dynasty (500BC), when there was mass disorder and confusion and degrading moral standards. Confucius was appalled by what appeared to be the fracturing of Chinese society. He believed that the only cure was to stress a sense of social order and mutual respect, a philosophy that later became known as Confucianism.FounderKong Fu Zi, which was translated as Confucius by EuropeansSacred TextSignificant Writings-The Analects.
43ConfucianismDuring the Chou Dynasty, warfare had become a very gruesome affair, whole populations were put to death. Anywhere from 60,000 to 400,000 people slaughteredConcerned primarily with restoring social stability and orderWhat is the basis of a stable, unified, and enduring social order?A system of social and ethical philosophy“only when character is cultivated are our families regulated; only when families are regulated are states well governed.”People have to warrant the respect and power that comes with their positions in life. Power and respect are not a given, they must be earned.He believed that if everyone followed the five ideals, even just one person the effect would be wide spread. Through that person’s family, community, nation, and the world.
44Older brother to younger brother. ConfucianismTeachings and BeliefsConfucianism teaches that there is a natural social order to society which can best be explained through the Five RelationshipsRuler to ruled.Father to son.Older brother to younger brother.Husband to wife.Friend to friendIn these relationships, the second role is considered subordinate to the first. It was taught that if everyone knew their place in society, then order would prevail. There are several concepts which needed to be practiced in order to achieve an ordered societyJen-Human kindness should be shown towards one another. Li-Proper etiquette should always be used, and one should strive to achieve perfect virtue. Filial Piety-One should respect their eldersThe institution of the family is the foundation of a well-ordered & civilized society (grounded mainly on respect of children for parents)Respect for age (experience & wisdom)
45Confucianism Confucianism TTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about ConfucianismConfucianismSacredTextThe Analects
47Taoism Founder Sacred Text Tao Te Ching Lao Tzu: Was born around 640 B.C.No one is really sure about any dates or places.Sacred TextTao Te ChingThe Tao Te Ching is in effect the Taoist bible.It centers around the concept of Tao. Or the “path”
48Taoism There are three meanings of “Tao” Tao- The way to ultimate reality. This Tao is way to vast for a person to comprehend or fathom.Tao- The way of the universe. The norm, the rhythm, and the driving power in all of nature. Deals more with the spiritual side then the Physical side of things.Tao- The way of human life. It refers to the way that we mesh with the Tao of the universe.The Chinese term Tao can be translated into English, meaning "the way." It is a philosophy which teaches that nature has a "way" in which it moves, and that people should passively accept the "way" of nature, rather than resist it. One concept related to this is that of wu-wei, which means "not doing." This means that people should not act unnaturally by doing things, but rather should openly accept the natural way. An emphasis is placed on the link between people and nature. Taoism teaches that this link lessened the need for rules and order, and leads one to a better understanding of the world.
49TaoismThe Taoist believe in opposites, and that things in nature have a way of working themselves out.The Taoist believe that people should be spontaneous and life their lives by someone else’s thoughts.Lao Tzu connects the human to what transcends it.
50DBQ Document 2: FROM THE BOOK OF LAO ZI, A DAOIST PHILOSOPHER The best rulers are those that people do not even know exist.The next best are those who people love and praise.The next are those who people fear,The next are those who people despise.The best rulers seldom issue any orders.1. What are two characteristics Lao Zi considered “best” for a ruler?__________________________________________________________________2. What was the purpose of this little speech?Document 1: A CONFUCIAN SAYINGThe Master said. “Rule over them with dignity and they will be respectful; treat them withkindness and they will do their best; raise the good and instruct those who are backward and they willbe filled with happiness.”-Confucius1. List three characteristics Confucius thought a good ruler should possess.
52Major Religion Review - WebQuest Name_____________________________________ Date________Conducted by ________________________ and ___________________________Our assigned religion is ________________________________________________When was this religion first founded? _____________________________________By whom? __________________________________________________________It is associated with these other religions:___________________________________________________________________It was first founded in the ____________________ region of Asia. Today, morethan _________________ people practice this religion in Asia. The countries whereit is most prevalent are ________________________________________________.Some fundamental beliefs of people who practice this religion are___________________________________________________________________.Some notable dates and events in the history of this religion areWhen was the height of the presence of this religion in Asia? __________________.What are some factors that may have impacted its presence in Asia over the years?Directions: Work with your partner to answer the following questions.
53Thematic EssayDirections: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task below, and a conclusion.Theme: Belief SystemsTask:There are a variety of belief systems practiced throughout the world today. Many of these beliefs have developed massive followings, and as a result, have had a considerable amount of influence on culture in the areas where they are practiced.Choose two belief systems from your study of global history, and for each one:Identify the nation or region where it was founded.Describe two basic teachings of the belief system.Discuss how the belief system has influenced the culture of the areas in which it is currently practicedYou may use any example from your study of global history. Do not use the United States in your answer. Some suggestions that you may wish to consider include: Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam Buddhism, Shinto, Animism, Confucianism, and Taoism.