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Use of a battery of bioassays to classify hazardous wastes and evaluate their impact int the aquatic environment Benoit Ferrari 1 and Jean–François Ferard.

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Presentation on theme: "Use of a battery of bioassays to classify hazardous wastes and evaluate their impact int the aquatic environment Benoit Ferrari 1 and Jean–François Ferard."— Presentation transcript:

1 Use of a battery of bioassays to classify hazardous wastes and evaluate their impact int the aquatic environment Benoit Ferrari 1 and Jean–François Ferard 2 1 Institut F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Switzerland 2 ESE, CNRS FRE 2635, University of Metz, France curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

2 Topics Hazardous waste legislation – Where are we now in Europe? Waste hazardous criteria – Summary Focus on the H14 criterion Ecotoxic – The French proposal Implementation of the methodology – Case study of two solid wastes –Ecotoxicological testing approach –Data interpretation –Waste classification Interest of the H14 criterion assessment – Case study of two waste deposits –Ecotoxicological approach –Ecological approach curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

3 Hazardous waste regulatory aspects Framework Directive on Waste (Council Directive 91/156/EEC) Framework Directive on Waste (Council Directive 91/156/EEC) Definition of waste Management of waste Definition of waste Management of waste Hazardous Waste Directive (Council Directive 91/689/EEC) Hazardous Waste Directive (Council Directive 91/689/EEC) Waste displaying one or more of 14 defined hazardous properties (H1 to H14) listed in Annex III Waste containing any constituents listed in Annex II (C1 to C51) and having one or more hazardous properties (e.g. C25 = asbestos) European Waste Catalogue EWC including the Hazardous Waste List HWL (Decision 2000/532/EC) curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

4 The 14 defined hazardous properties H1Explosive H2Oxidizing H3AHighly flammable H3BFlammable H4Irritant H5Harmful H6Toxic H7Carcinogenic H8Corrosive H9Infectious H10Teratogenic/toxic for reproduction H11Mutagenic H12 Substances and preparations which release toxic or very toxic gases in contact with water, air or an acid H13 Substances and preparations capable by means, after disposal, of yielding another substance, e.g. leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above H14Ecotoxic H1 to H3 = physical hazard H4 to H12 = hazard for human health H13 = hazard following elimination of waste H14 = environmental hazard H1 to H3 = physical hazard H4 to H12 = hazard for human health H13 = hazard following elimination of waste H14 = environmental hazard curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

5 Assessment of the H14 criterion Ecotoxic The French proposal (French Ministry of Environment, 1998) The French proposal (French Ministry of Environment, 1998) C = Concentration EC = Effective Concentration NON– ECOTOXIC WASTE HAZARDOUS WASTE OR NO YES WASTE Chemical characterization of : Raw waste Leachate Ecotoxicological characterization of: C > Limit Values? Raw waste Leachate EC < Limit Values? curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

6 Example of two solid wastes Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (BA) EWC/HWL code Granular (> 4 mm) Slag from a second smelting of lead (2SL) EWC/HWL code Granular (< 4 mm) Crushing procedure – particle size lower than 4 mm Evaluation of moisture content (drying at 105 5°C until constant weight) and Sub–sampling of BA and 2SL for ecotoxicity tests on solid–phase and on eluates curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

7 Batch leaching procedure: Eluates European standard EN 12457–2 (2002) Waste (particle size < 4mm) Deionized Water Liquid/Solid ratio =10 (on dry weight basis) 100rpm – 24 hours Settling (15 min) Centrifugation (10 min – 3500 rpm) Eluates tested immediately without filtration and pH adjustment curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

8 Indirect ecotoxicity testing: Eluates Procedure for testing BA or 2SL eluates Measurement of light output inhibition of the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox) after 30 min (AFNOR T90–320, 1999) = MTX Measurement endpoint = EC50 Measurement of mobility inhibition of the cladoceran Daphnia magna after 2 d (AFNOR T90–301, 1996) = Dm Measurement endpoint = EC50 Measurement of growth inhibition of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata after 72 h (AFNOR T90–375, 1998) = Ps Measurement endpoint = EC20 + EC50 Measurement of reproduction inhibition of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia after 7 d (EPA 600/4_91/002, 1994) = Cd Measurement endpoint = EC20 + EC50 Acute tests Chronic test curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

9 Direct ecotoxicity testing: Solid–phase Procedure for testing BA or 2SL Measurement of growth inhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) after 14 d (OECD 208, 1984) = Ls ger (germination), Ls fb (fresh biomass), Ls db (dry biomass) Measurement endpoint = EC50 Acute test curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

10 Experimental data: Toxicity of BA (1) EC50 limit value (Acute test) EC20 limit value (Chronic test) INDIRECT Most sensitive test curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

11 Experimental data: Toxicity of BA (2) EC50 limit value DIRECT curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

12 Experimental data: Toxicity of 2SL (1) EC50 limit value (Acute test) EC20 limit value (Chronic test) INDIRECT Most sensitive test curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

13 Experimental data: Toxicity of 2SL (2) EC50 limit value DIRECT curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

14 Classification according to H14 BA 2SL At least 1 bioassay shows a toxicity value inferior to the fixed limit 3 of the 5 bioassays show toxicity values inferior to the fixed limits HAZARDOUS curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

15 Interest of H14 criterion To select the most suitable way for managing waste in the environment To warn about the ecotoxicological potential hazard of waste leachates for the aquatic ecosystem To ensure that unacceptable adverse effects would not arise from storage, treatment, re–use or disposal of waste Prerequisite step… curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

16 Field monitoring: Waste deposits 3 fractions: –P0.5, P1, P2 for BA = cumulated quantities of percolates according to L/S rations of 0.5, 1, 2 –P2.5, P5, P7.5 for 2SL = cumulated quantities of percolates according to L/S rations of 2.5, 5, 7.5 Tested using bioassays: MTX, Dm, Ps and Cd And supplying outdoor artificial streams (5 m, 440 L, 3 concentrations + control) colonized by aquatic invertebrate communities after having percolated through permeable subsoil BA2SL Adapted from Perrodin et al. (2002) curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

17 Field data: Waste deposits (1) BA2SL Existence of a residual ecotoxicity in the last fraction curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

18 Field data: Waste deposits (2) BA2SL Significant effects on abundance, richness and emergence of the aquatic invertebrates Percolates 10–fold diluted by water before supplying the artificial river Percolates 100–fold diluted by water before supplying the artificial river Perrodin et al. (2002) curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

19 Field data: Waste deposits (3) BA2SL Long–term ecotoxic potential hazard of leachates for the aquatic ecosystem if no storage management Ecotoxicological approach + Ecological approach curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005

20 References AFNOR 1996 Water quality – Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea) – Acute toxicity test. N°T90-301, Association Française de Normalisation, Paris. AFNOR 1998 Water quality – Determination of water chronic toxicity by growth inhibition of the fresh water algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Selenastrum capricornutum). N°T90-375, Association Française de Normalisation, Paris. AFNOR 1999 Water quality – Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) – Part 3: Method using freeze-dried bacteria. N°T , Association Française de Normalisation, Paris. Council Directive 91/156/EEC of 18 March 1991 amending Directive 75/442/EEC on waste. Official Journal L 078, 26/03/1991, Brussels, 32–7. Council Directive 91/689/EEC of 12 December 1991 on hazardous waste. Official Journal L 377, 31/12/1991, Brussels, 20–7. EN Characterization of waste – Leaching – Compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges – Part 2: One-stage batch test at a liquid to solids ratio of 10 l/kg for materials with a particle size below 4 mm (with or without size reduction), CEN/TC292/WG2, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. EPA 1994 Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms. EPA 600/4_91/002, Environmental Systems Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH. French Ministry of Environment 1998 Criteria and methods for the assessment of the ecotoxicity of wastes. French Ministry of Environment/Directorate for Prevention Pollution and Risk Control January, Paris. OECD 1984 Guidelines for testing of chemicals: Terrestrial plants, growth test. Document 208, Oragnisation for Economic Co–ordination and Development, Paris. Perrodin, Y., Gobbey, A., Grelier-Volatier, L., Canivet, V., Fruget, J.F., Gibert, J., Texier, C., Cluzeau, D., Gros, R., Poly, F. and Jocteur–Monrozier, L Waste ecocompatibility in storage and reuse scenarios: global methodology and detailed presentation of the impact study on the recipient environments. Waste Management, 22, curriculum in natural environmental science, 2005


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