INTRODUCTION SEED SERVICES Seed laws Variety Release system Seed certification Necessary changes for harmonisation Institutional Capacity and Constraints
PLANT QUARANTINE SERVICES Phytosanitary regulations and Standards Acts of Parliament International Standards Quarantine and Phytosanitary Measures for Seed Necessary changes for harmonisation Institutional Capacity and Constraints
Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development (formerly Ministry of Agriculture) Department of Research and Specialist Services (DR&SS) Research Services Division
To develop framework and cooperation between agro-industries, farmers, government and other relevant stakeholders, through the provision of reliable, efficient and competitive regulatory services. To ensure quality agricultural inputs and produce thereby promoting sustainable agriculture and economic growth.
DRS PLANT QUARANTINE SERVICES INTERNAL PLANT QUARANTINE Throughout 8 Provinces Zimbabwe EXTERNAL PLANT QUARANTINE 21 ENTRY/EXIT POINTS PPRI CSI Gene Bank Botanic Gardens SEED SERVICES SEED TESTING SEED INSPECTORATE
MANDATE Legal mandate of regulating and administering activities related to agricultural, vegetable, tree and flower Seeds
New variety evaluations Granting Plant Breeders Rights Registering seed crops and growers Conducting seed inspections Seed testing Registering seed sellers, seed testing laboratories and seed companies Regulating import and export of seed
Seed Services has two Acts of Parliament 1. Seeds Act, Chapter 19:13 and its enabling Regulations – Seed Regulations (1971) and Seed (Certification Scheme) Notice 2000. 2. Plant Breeders Rights Act Chapter 18:26 of 1979
RECOGNITION REGISTRATION INSPECTION TESTING MARKETING O N E W A Y
Recognition A variety that is known should : Be true to type, thus it must maintain its characteristics over repeated propagation Must be on a government list (Second Schedule of the Seed Certification Scheme Notice, 2000) that show varieties recognised for seed production in Zimbabwe.
New variety evaluations by Seed Services- D.U.S. National Variety Release Committee assesses the data on performance and approves- Value for cultivation and use (VCU) Listing of the new variety in the Second Schedule
Applicant submits completed S.C.S 2 application forms in triplicate – with seed sample of new variety (1kg) – application fee – BY stipulated deadlines (31 Oct & 30 April) SS verifies application & selects appropriate control vars (i.e closest similar vars) Maintainers of listed vars are reqd to provide samples of control vars selected by SS Applicants plant candidate vars & their appropriate controls according to planting instructions given by SS candidate vars are grown adjacent to control vars to facilitate easy visual characterisation of the crops – plots replicated 2X
Evaluations are conducted at the V, F & P stages of crop growth – use Technical Test Guidelines dvpd by UPOV Breeders/ applicants participate in the evaluation exercise Level of off-types in plots are used to predict degree of uniformity expected from new var Vars found to be uniform can be considered stable – HOWEVER stability will continue to be monitored in post control trials (also done by SS)
If SS is satisfied with DUS results, applicant is informed - new var is recommended for variety release – a VRP has the final say (approves/ rejects application) When a new variety is approved for release, it becomes listed on the 2 nd Schedule of SSCN
The new var will remain listed on 2 nd Schedule if: 1. It remains stable 2. Genetically pure seed is propagated 3. Annual renewal fees are paid to the CA
Shows varieties of crops approvd for seed prodn & mkting in Zimbabwe Quite diverse SS is responsible for maintaining & updating the list (whether listing or de-listing vars) BE FAMILIAR with the list- check when not sure! Clearly shows KIND & VAR OF CROP, VARIETY NAME & MAINTAINER
A seed company can only multiply seed of crops it is licensed to produce. The seed company is also obligated to formerly notify Seed Services of its seed growers, where they are located, hectarage grown and the varieties being produced. Recognised varieties should only be produced by seed growers under authorised seed companies.
Registered seed crops should only be inspected in the field by authorised seed inspectors, whether from seed companies or government (ensures uniformity in the manner in which certification is conducted). Certification inspections are conducted at vegetative, flowering and pre-harvest stages of crop growth.
The first function of field inspection is to examine the seed crop as a whole to ensure it is consistent with the characteristics of the variety given in the official description, thus the crop must have the correct varietal identity. In the case of hybrid varieties, the inspector must be able to identify without difficulty the male parental lines and the female parental lines.
Registered and inspected seed must be tested for purity and germination before it is sold, to ensure that it meets the minimum purity and germination standards outlined in the Seed Regulations 1971. Seed tests are conducted to determine the following seed parameters: -germination -moisture content -number of weed seeds -purity (presence of chaff and other unwanted material)
presence of seeds of other crops Seed samples that meet the specific requirements are given local or international certificates (O.I.C.)
Only quality guaranteed seed must be sold. The seed must also: a) Have labels; b) Be non-expired; c) Sold by authorised people with valid seed sellers licences d) Stored properly for maintenance of quality
SADC and national implementation almost similar
Capacity difficult to gauge as the system is yet to be implemented Seed services is ready to tackle harmonization
Phytosanitary Regulations and Standards Plant Pests And Diseases Act Chapter 19:08 Zimbabwe is a signatory to the World Trade Organizations Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (WTO-SPS) Also a signatory to the FAO-International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and follows International Standards of Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) Regulatory powers to inspect, disinfect and eradicate PLANT QUARANTINE SERVICES (PQS)/NATIONAL PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION (NPPO)
To import vegetable seed into Zimbabwe, an I mport Permit is to be applied for prior to movement of seed by the importer so as to get details of conditions for to importing. The Zimbabwe NPPO issues I mport Permit only after having seen documentation from Seed Services Department allowing for importation of the seed. The I mport Permit is sent to the exporter (vBSS) for use to apply to export vegetable seed. Seed should follow seed export procedures (Seed Health and Control aspects) for the NPPO of the country from which seed is coming from. Consignments of seed are to be accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate on a Government prescribed form from the NPPO of the country from which seed is coming from. Form to have been completed by the Plant Health Inspector indicating certification of conditions required by importing country ( Zimbabwe). Seed exportation basically consists of reversal on NPPO duties from the Seed importation procedures
Decision to conduct seed health tests is made If laboratory seed health is necessary, seed quarantined until seed health test results are known (7 days) ) May decide due to limited seed quantities to monitor seed growth/ production / multiplication at destined production site (under isolated conditions) If NO order for rejection, destruction, re-export is made, if YES Sampling and Inspection of seed is made Approved seed importation arrival ( Receipt and checking of import documentation ; Is it ok?) Yes No
Recommendation Seed treatment prior to exportPhytosanitary certificate issuedExport non-approval Seed health test results Decision to do seed health /seed testing is made Exporter makes an Export Application: brings samples + Phytosanitary Field Inspection Report of seed to be exported Phytosanitary Field Inspection Report filed and copy submitted to potential exporter Seed Documents received : Import Permit from importing country + application for Phytosanitary field Inspections Field Inspections Conducted during active growth stages of seed crop
Head Office situated in Mazowe Site has well-developed laboratories, glasshouses, incinerators and offices. Works with all points of entry/exit into/out of Zimbabwe. Manned by Plant Health Inspectors and their assistants