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FACULDADE DE LETRAS - FALE CEI - CURSO DE ESPECIALIZAÇÃO EM INGLÊS - ENSINO FIRST SEMESTER - 2010 WORKGROUP: ALEXANDRE FORTES CAMILA LOBATO CAMILA MAGALHÃES.

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Presentation on theme: "FACULDADE DE LETRAS - FALE CEI - CURSO DE ESPECIALIZAÇÃO EM INGLÊS - ENSINO FIRST SEMESTER - 2010 WORKGROUP: ALEXANDRE FORTES CAMILA LOBATO CAMILA MAGALHÃES."— Presentation transcript:

1 FACULDADE DE LETRAS - FALE CEI - CURSO DE ESPECIALIZAÇÃO EM INGLÊS - ENSINO FIRST SEMESTER WORKGROUP: ALEXANDRE FORTES CAMILA LOBATO CAMILA MAGALHÃES ERICKA CAMILA SUBJECT:CALL PROFESSOR: DR. REINILDES DIAS

2 ONLINE COMMUNICATION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

3 1- HISTORICAL BACKGROUND LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

4 1.1 - THE EMERGENCE OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has long been of interest to teachers, learners and researches. Mason and Kaye discussed its role in different educational contexts in their classic book Mindweave. In it, they drew attention to the intermingling and cross- fertilization of ideas that CMC afforded. To language professionals CMC could potentially answer two needs at once. It could be the means through which teaching occurred, and it could be the end of conversational classes. Instead of it, learners could engage with the communicative aspect of their study by exchanging language online. LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

5 Various acronyms have been used to cover the process of learning and teaching languages through the mediation of computers. CALL - Computer-assisted Language Learning CMC - Computer-mediated communication CMCL - Computer-mediated communication in the context of language learning LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan. Focus: THE EMERGENCE OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING

6 CALL A form of computer-based learning which carries two important features: bidirectional learning and individualized learning. It is not a method. CALL materials are tools for learning. The focus of CALL is learning, and not teaching. CALL materials are used in teaching to facilitate the language learning process. It is a student-centered accelerated learning material, which promotes self-paced accelerated learning. From: LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

7 CMC and CMCL Defined as any communicative transaction that occurs through the use of two or more networked computers. While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via computer-mediated formats (e.g., instant messages, s, chat rooms), it has also been applied to other forms of text- based interaction such as text messaging. Research on CMC focuses largely on the social effects of different computer-supported communication technologies. Many recent studies involve Internet-based social networking supported by social software. From: LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan. CMCL - aimed at giving focus to Language Learning.

8 A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF CALL LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan. Behaviouristic CALL - The computer is a provider of drills to learners who (usually) responds on an individual basis. Targeted Skills: reading and writing Communicative CALL - CALL is able to use the technology for more interactive learning and greater student choice and control. Targeted Skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening Integrative CALL - CALL is able to take all the previous advantages aforementioned plus all the advance of multimedia products and the democratization of the Internet use with its complete variety of media. Targeted Skills: several skills can be deployed at once

9 LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan THE ROAD TRAVELLED: A BROAD VIEW Warschauer (1995) published the fist CMCL practitioner book. According to him, the hopes of early adopters of CMCL included giving learners the opportunity to: Communicate with native speakers; Communicate either one-to-one or, more innovatively, one-to many and many-to-many; Plan their communication; Revisit their work, owing to the permanent traces made available to them through the technologies.

10 1.3 - WHAT THE META-LITERATURE REVEALS ABOUT PRACTICE AND RESEARCH LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan. Each of the meta-studies in the table on the right provides a different angle on the CMCL landscape. Table 1 - Meta-studies of CALL and CMCL since 1991

11 LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan PRACTITIONER STUDIES AS A REFLECTION OS PRACTICES OF USE Table 2 - Practice: Liu et al.s corpus Liu et al.s corpus to CMCL- specific material after been narrowed down was considered to have a overwhelmingly text- chat-based usage instead of a practiced-based nature as explicitly declared.

12 LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan PRACTITIONER STUDIES AS A REFLECTION OS PRACTICES OF USE Table 3 - Hassan et al.s corpus Hassan et al. collected a wider range of CMCL literature than was discussed in their final report.

13 1.5 - A NEW CONTENT AREA EMERGES LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan. Kern (2006) - Interculturalism: the locus of intense theory-building activity fielding such hypotheses as: connectivity does not necessarily promote intercultural communication (Belz 2002b); there are cultural differences in the interaction styles of different students cohort (Belz, 2003); studies must look at the impact of cultural differences on teachers in intercultural projects (Belz and Müller Hartmann, 2003); researches should investigate communicative genre and address the need to situate competence development in specific communication contexts (Kramsch and Thorne, 2001; Hanna and de Nooy, 2003; Thorne, 2003); success depends on interpersonal response (ODowd, 2003, 2006); failure and avoidance of interaction may result when students are faced with cultural misunderstandings from a pan-pal cohort (Ware, 2003)

14 LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan. Hubbard - criticize researchers for reporting projects involving small numbers of untrained learners doing the task for the first time. He recommends, better control of variables in studies through better isolation of prior experience and finger- grained information on initial and exit proficiency. (2005: 360-2) Hassan et al. - insists that studies must test the effect of a language learning intervention against another intervention, or standard practice or no intervention.(2005;20) Liu et al. - concur, observing that in their corpus the use of well-established measures with clear reliability and validity information was…minimal (2002:263) Bax - we need more careful qualitative – I would argue for ethnographic – analyses, in order to understand CALL better (2003: 2) Levy - Descriptive work is important in all CALL research, but especially for CMC- based work. Researchers need to be highly sensitive to the new phenomena that arise in mediated CALL learning environments (2000: 184) THE QUALITY OF CMCL RESEARCH

15 LAMY, M.N.; HAMPEL, R. Online communication in language learning and teaching. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan SUMMARY It has prioritised questions on conversation and discourse, learner participation (and patterns of interaction) and collaboration (less from the point of view of task design than of learner attitude, motivation and latterly, intercultural learning opportunities). CMCL Research (since 1990) The oral skill remains of interest, with older research looking for facilitation of oral competence in chat settings, whilst newer research observes newer speech in synchronous voice-over-Internet environments. The major new content area is intercultural theory. Along with assessment, teaching delivery continues to be under-represented.


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