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Citations and Works Cited Lists

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1 Citations and Works Cited Lists
How to Reference Items Properly

2 References Whenever you take ANY information (whether it is a quotation or even an idea or concept) from any place other than your brain, you must CITE or REFERENCE it In essays or in text, we use PARENTHETICAL REFERENCES called “in-text citations”. This is done in brackets at the end of quotations or sentences that contain ideas that you “borrowed” from someone else, like this: “All of this happened a long time ago” (6). or “All of this happened a long time ago” (Findley 6).

3 In Text Citations When quoting an author and it’s unclear WHICH author (because you have multiple authors you are talking about in your paper), use the author’s last name and the page number the quotation/idea comes from: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times” (Dickens 12). If you are really only using one author in your paper, and you’ve already introduced that author or it is pretty obvious from your sentence structure who you are quoting, then you only need the page number: As Dickens says in A Tale of Two Cities, “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times” (12). Either way, the reference goes in parentheses AFTER the quotation but before the period.

4 Shakespeare Referencing Shakespeare is a little different because he is so famous We don’t need his name because it is so obvious If you are referencing lines in a play, we don’t use page numbers but ACT.SCENE.LINE NUMBERS (separated by periods): “Oh Romeo, Romeo! / Wherefore art thou Romeo?” ( )

5 If You Don’t Know the Author
Sometimes you don’t have a page number or even a name to reference, especially if you’re using the internet to do your research In this case, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work or italicize it if it's a longer work and provide a page number (if available) There are so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6).

6 In-Text Electronic Sources
Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).

7 Works Cited List A works cited list (or bibliography) is a list of all the full information of where to find the in-text references you included in your paper There is a VERY specific format you must follow for it to be deemed “correct” Punctuation matters!!! Works Cited lists should match the parenthetical references in your paper. All parenthetical references should have a works cited list entry Whatever is name or source is included in the parenthetical reference should be the first bit of information listed in a works cited list for ease of use

8 Works Cited List – General Rules
Is part of your essay and should be treated as such On its own page at the end of the essay Has a page number Follows MLA formatting (double spaced, TNR 12 point font, running header, etc.) Is in alphabetical order by entry It is NOT numbered If an entry runs onto a second line, each line after the first is indented 5 spaces (1 tab)

9 Basic Entry Author Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin, Print.

10 A Work in an Anthology Lastname, First name. "Title of Story“. Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium of Publication. Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers“. A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One. Ed. Ben Rafoth. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Print.

11 Electronic Sources Not every Web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible both for your citations and for your research notes: Author and/or editor names (if available) Article name in quotation marks (if applicable) Title of the Website, project, or book in italics. Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers. Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date. Take note of any page numbers (if available). Medium of publication. Date you accessed the material. URL (if required, or for your own personal reference).

12 Electronic Entry Presley, J.M. “Shakespeare’s Biography”. Shakespeare Resource Centre Web. 19 Oct <

13 Citing an Entire Website
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access. The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, Web. 23 Apr

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