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Vocab. List 1: Prefixes.

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1 Vocab. List 1: Prefixes

2 #1 antecedent- going before in time
Prefix: ante (before) antipathy- revulsion, any object of strong dislike Prefix: anti (against) Circumvent- to go around; to catch in a trap; to gain superiority over; to prevent from happening Prefix: circum/circ (around)

3 #2 4. consensus- agreement, especially in opinion
Prefix: con (with, together) 5. controversy- a discussion of a question in which opposing views clash Prefix: contr (against) 6. decimate- to destroy or kill a large portion of something; to take or destroy a tenth part of something Prefix: dec (ten)

4 #3 7. demote- to lower in grade or position
Prefix: de (down, away from) 8. disinterested- not motivated by personal interest or selfish motives Prefix: dis (not, opposite of) 9. euphemism- the use of a word or phrase that is considered less distasteful or offensive than another Prefix: eu (good, well)

5 #4 10. exorbitant- going beyond what is reasonable and proper
Prefix: ex (out of, away from) 11. illegible- not able to be read Prefix: il (not, opposite) 12. intermittent- stopping and starting again at intervals Prefix: inter (between)

6 #5 13. malevolent- having an evil disposition toward others
Prefix: mal (bad) 14. precursor- a forerunner, one who or that which comes before Prefix: pre (before) 15. prognosis- a forecast; especially in medicine Prefix: pro (before)

7 #6 16. retrospect- looking back on or thinking about things past
Prefix: retro (back, again) 17. subordinate- (1)inferior to or placed below another in rank, power, or importance. (2) a person or thing of lesser power or importance than another. (3) to treat as inferior or less important. Prefix: sub (under)

8 #7 18. synthesis- putting two or more things together to form a whole
Prefix: syn, sym (with or together) 19. transcend- to go beyond the limits of; to overstep; to exceed Prefix: trans (across) 20. trivial- of little worth or importance Prefix: tri (three)

9 Vocab. List 2: Suffixes

10 #1 agrarian- having to do with agriculture or farming
Suffix: -ian (one who is or does) 2. antagonist- one that contends with or opposes another Suffix: -ist (one who) 3. bigotry- unreasonable zeal in favor of a party, sect, or opinion Suffix: -ry (state of)

11 #2 consummate- to complete, to carry to the utmost degree
Suffix: -ate (to make) copious- abundant; plentiful; in great quantities Suffix: -ious (having the quality of) 6. cryptic- hidden; secret; having a hidden or ambiguous meaning Suffix: -ic (causing)

12 #3 7. deferment- the act of putting off or delaying; postponement
Suffix: -ment (quality of) 8. furtive- done in a stealthy manner; sly and underhanded Suffix: -ive (having the nature of) 9. laudable- praiseworthy Suffix: -able (capable of)

13 #4 10. geology- the study of the history of the earth and its life, especially as recorded in rocks Suffix: -ology (study of) 11. minimize- to play down; to keep to a minimum Suffix: -ize (to subject to an action) 12. mutation- the act or process of changing Suffix: -tion (action of, state of)

14 #5 13. obsolescence- the state of being outdated
Suffix: -escence (state of) 14. parity- the state or condition of being the same in power, value or rank; equality Suffix: -ity (state of being) 15. pragmatism- faith in the practical approach Suffix: -ism (state or doctrine of)

15 #6 16. provocative- something that stirs up an action
Suffix: -ive (having the nature of) 17. puerile- childish, silly, immature Suffix: -ile (pertaining to) 18. rectify- to make right; to correct Suffix: -ify (to make)

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17 #7 19. relentless- harsh; unmoved by pity; unstoppable
Suffix: -less (without) 20. venerate- to look upon with deep respect and reverence Suffix: -ate (to make)

18 Vocab. List #3: Learning Roots

19 #1 agonize- to suffer intense pain, to struggle over something
Root: agon (struggle, contest) 2. audible- able to be heard Root: aud (hear) 3. belligerent- warlike, hostile Root: bell (war)

20 #2 4. chronic- constant, habitual
Root: chron (time) 5. demographic- statistical characteristics of human population, such as age or income Root: dem (people) 6. fidelity- faithfulness Root: fid (faith)

21 #3 7. fluctuate- to move up and down, constantly changing
Root: flux, flu (to flow) 8. genocide- the deliberate extermination of an entire group of people Root: gen (race or kind) 9. incognito- disguised, unrecognizable Root: cog, gno (to know)

22 #4 10. inducement- motive, leading to an action, incentive
Root: duc (lead) 11. interrogate- to question Root: rog (to ask) 12. loquacious- talkative Root: loq (speak)

23 #5 13. nominal- in name only, a small amount
Root: nom (name) 14. pathos- suffering; feeling of sympathy or pity Root: path (feelings) 15. protracted- drawn out in time, prolonged Root: tract (draw; pull)

24 #6 16. rejected- sent back, refused, discarded
Root: ject (to throw or send) 17. sophisticated- knowledgeable; refined, experienced, and aware Root: soph (wisdom) 18. tenacious- unwilling to let go, stubborn Root: ten (hold)

25 #7 19. verify- to establish as truth, confirm
Root: ver (truth) 20. vivacious- lively in manner Root: viv (life)

26 Vocab. List #4: More Roots

27 #1 agoraphobic- fear of open or public spaces 2. assimilate- to fit in
Root: phobe (fear) 2. assimilate- to fit in Root: simul (copy) 3. attribute- a special quality Root: trib (to give)

28 #2 4. benevolent- kind, having goodwill
Root: ben (good) 5. biodegradable- able to be broken down by living things Root: bio (life) 6. conspicuous- highly visible Root: spic, spec (see)

29 #3 7. contradiction- the act or state of disagreeing
Root: contra (against) Root: dict (say) 8. credence- belief, believability Root: cred (believe) 9. evident- obvious Root: vid (see)

30 #4 10. gregarious- sociable 11. impediment- a barrier or hindrance
Root: greg (crowd) 11. impediment- a barrier or hindrance Root: ped, pod (foot) Root: ped (child) 12. incisive- penetrating, clear cut Root: cis, cid (to cut)

31 #5 13. inference- guess or surmise
Root: fer (bear or carry) 14. mediocre- of medium quality, neither good nor bad, average Root: med (middle) 15. philanthropy- giving generously to worthy causes Root: phil (love)

32 #6 16. precedent- a prior ruling or experience
Root: ced (go) 17. recapitulate- to review in detail Root: cap (head) 18. remittance- payment, transmittal or money Root: mit, mis (to send)

33 #7 19. tangential- touching slightly, relating to
Root: tang, tac, tig (touch) 20. urbane- polished, sophisticated Root: urb (city)

34 Vocab. List 5: Foreign Language Terms Used in English

35 #1 aficionado- a person who likes, knows about and is devoted to a particular activity or thing avant-garde- (1)a group of people who develop innovative and experimental concepts, especially in the arts. (2) relating to a group of people who develop innovative and experimental concepts, especially in the arts.

36 #2 3. blasé- apathetic to pleasure or excitement as a result of excessive indulgence in something 4. bourgeois- having the attributes and beliefs of the middle class, marked by materialistic concerns 5. cliché- a phrase or saying which has been overused and as a result has little significance or meaning

37 #3 6. debut- a first appearance 7. élan- spirit, enthusiasm, or excitement 8. entrepreneur- a person who takes on the challenge and risk of starting his or her own business

38 #4 9. epitome- an exact example of something; someone or something that embodies the essence of a concept or type 10. fait accompli- something that is complete and seemingly irreversible 11. gauche- lacking social graces or sophistication

39 #5 12. imbroglio- a complicated or embarrassing situation due to a misunderstanding 13. ingénue- a young girl or woman, an actress playing such a role 14. laissez-faire- a doctrine opposing government control of economic matters except in a case of maintaining peace and the concept of property

40 #6 15. malaise- the vague feeling of illness 16. naïve- innocent, simple, lacking knowledge of the world 17. non sequitur- a statement that has no connection to the previous statement or idea

41 #7 18. rendezvous- a meeting place 19. vendetta- a grudge or feud characterized by acts of retaliation 20. vignette- a short descriptive written piece

42 Vocab. List #6: Business Terms

43 #1 arbitrage- the buying of “paper”—stocks, bonds, and securities—to resell for a quick profit arbitration- the process by which disputes are settled by a third party beneficiary- one who will benefit from something

44 #2 4. capital- accumulated wealth, used to gain more wealth 5. collusion- a secret agreement for a deceitful or fraudulent purpose, conspiracy 6. consortium- a joining of two or more businesses for a specific purpose

45 #3 7. deduction- the subtraction of a cost from income 8. discrimination- the act of making distinctions, the act of distinguishing between one group of people and another and treating people differently as a result, prejudiced actions or treatment

46 #4 9. entitlement- special privilege or benefit allowed to a group of people 10. equity- fairness or evenness of treatment, or the value of property after all claims have been made against it 11. exempt- excused from some rule or job

47 #5 12. fiscal- pertaining to money or finance 13. franchise- a business that is owned by a parent company but run by independent operators under rules set out by the parent company 14. harassment- the act of harassing someone, annoy or irritate persistently

48 #6 15. jargon- the specialized vocabulary of an industry or interest group 16. nepotism- the employment or promotion of friends and family members 17. perquisite- a privilege or bonus given in addition to regular salary

49 #7 18. prospectus- a published report of a business and its plans for a program or offering 19. subsidy- a grant of money for a particular purpose 20. tenure- the state or period of holding a particular position, or a guarantee of employment to teachers who have met particular standards

50 Vocab. List 7: Technology Terms

51 #1 application- a software program that lets you complete a task on your computer, such as word processing, listening to music, or viewing a Web page bandwidth- the amount of information that one can send through a connection, usually measured in bits per second

52 #2 3. bitmap- the representation in rows and columns of dots of an image in computer memory 4. cache- a high-speed storage mechanism that allows a computer to store frequently accessed information locally

53 #3 5. cookie- a message given to a Web browser by a Web server that is stored in the browser and sent back to the server every time the browser contacts the server for a Web page 6. cursor- a symbol, usually a blinking line that shows where the next letter will be typed on a computer screen

54 #4 7. database- information stored and organized so that a computer can quickly retrieve selected pieces of information 8. download- the process of copying a document or file from an online source to your own computer 9. encryption- the translation of information into a secret code

55 #5 10. Ethernet- a common method of enabling computers in the same Local Area Network to communicate with each other 11. firewall- a system that prevents unauthorized access to and from a private network 12. information technology (IT)- the broad subject of anything concerning processing or managing information, especially in a large company

56 #6 13. keyword- a word that specifies a particular record, file; in programming a specific command 14. motherboard- the main circuit board of a computer 15. network- a group of two or more computers linked together

57 #7 16. plug-in: a piece of hardware or software that adds a specific feature to a larger, already existing system 17. search engine- a program that searches documents, websites, and databases for a keyword and then provides a list of those documents

58 #8 18. server- a computer on a network that manages network resources 19. upload- the opposite of download; to transmit documents from your computer to an online source 20. workstation- a type of computer that has enough power to run applications used in work environments

59 Vocab. List 8: Legal Terms

60 #1 abrogate- to abolish by authoritative action
adjudicate- to act as a judge, to settle judicially appellate- having the power to review judgment of another court affidavit- a sworn statement in writing made under oath

61 #2 5. bequest- the act of bequeathing, the act of leaving someone/something in a will, something that is bequeathed 6. contraband- illegal or prohibited exporting or importing of goods 7. deposition- testimony under oath, taken down in writing

62 #3 8. exhume- to remove from a grave; to bring back from neglect or obscurity 9. extradite- to surrender an alleged criminal to the state or country in which he or she can be tried 10. intestate- one who dies without a will

63 #4 11. ipso facto- by the very fact or act, an inevitable act 12. larceny- the unlawful taking of someone else’s property with the intention of not giving it back 13. lien- a charge against real or personal property for the satisfaction of a debt or duty originally arising from the law

64 #5 14. litigious- contentious situation, prone to litigation 15. jurisprudence- a system of laws, the science of philosophy of the law 16. malfeasance- wrongdoing or misconduct especially by a public official 17. perjury- lying or intentionally omitting information under oath

65 #6 18. plagiarism- the act of passing of someone else’s work as your own 19. sanction- authoritative permission or approval that makes a course of action valid, a law or decree 20. tort- wrongdoing for which damages can be claimed; an unintentional violation of someone’s rights, which can result in civil action but not criminal proceedings

66 Vocab. List 9: Terms Relating to Language and Literature

67 #1 anecdote- a short account of an interesting or humorous incident
anthropomorphism- attribution of human motivation, characteristics, or behavior to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena archetype- an original model or type after which other similar things are patterned; an ideal example of a type

68 #2 4. aphorism- a brief statement of a truth or opinion; a saying or an adage 5. construe- to explain the meaning of; interpret; to analyze the grammatical structure of a sentence 6. deduce- to reach a conclusion of reasoning; to infer from a general principle; to trace the origin of

69 #3 7. epigram- a short, witty poem expressing a single thought or observation; a concise, clever, often paradoxical statement or saying 8. etymology- the origin and historical development of a word’s forms, meanings and usages 9. infer- to conclude or reason from evidence, premises, or circumstance; to hint or imply

70 #4 10. irony- the use of words to express something different from, and often opposite to, their literal meaning; a literary style employing such contrasts for witty effect; incongruity between what might be expected and what actally occurs 11. onomatopoeia- the formation or use of words such that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions to which they refer

71 #5 12. personification- a person or thing typifying a certain quality or idea; an embodiment or exemplification; a figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstractions are endowed with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form

72 #6 13. perspective- a mental view or outlook; a point of view; the ability to perceive things in their actual interrelations or comparative importance 14. protagonist- the main character in a drama or other literary work 15. prose- ordinary speech or writing, without metrical structure (as in poetry)

73 #7 16. pun- play on words 17. rhetoric- the art or study of using language effectively and persuasively 18. satire- a literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony and wit

74 #8 19. soliloquy- a dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character talks to himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a listener 20. trite- lacking power to evoke interest through overuse or repetition

75 Vocab. List 10: Short Words That Mean A Lot

76 #1 acme- the highest point, as of achievement or development
awry- in a position that is turned or twisted toward one side or away from the correct course; askew bane- fatal injury or ruin; a cause of harm, ruin, or death; a source of persistent annoyance or exasperation

77 #2 4. cite- to quote as an authority or example 5. crux- the basic or central point or feature; a puzzling or apparently insoluble problem 6. dire- warning of, or having dreadful or terrible consequences; urgent; desperate 7. dupe- an easily deceived person

78 #3 8. eke- to supplement or get with great effort; to make last by practicing strict economy 9. elite- a group or class of persons or a member of such a group or class, enjoying superior intellectual, social, or economic status; the best or most skilled members of a group 10. gibe- to make taunting, heckling, or jeering remarks

79 #4 11. maim- to disable or disfigure; to make imperfect or defective; impair 12. mete- to distribute by or as if by measure; allot 13. moot- a hypothetical case argued as an exercise; a case no longer of actual significance

80 #5 14. oust- to eject from a position or place; force out 15. purge- to free from impurities; purify; to rid of sin, guilt, or defilement; to clear a person of a charge; to get rid of people considered undesirable

81 #6 16. roil- to make a liquid muddy or cloudy by stirring up sediment; to displease or disturb; vex 17. sham- something false or empty that is said to be genuine; one who assumes a false character; an impostor 18. staid- characterized by sedate dignity and propriety; sober, fixed; permanent

82 #7 19. veer- to turn aside from a course, direction, or purpose; swerve 20. vie- to strive for superiority; compete, rival

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