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WISER 1. What is referencing all about? See slide 5-7 The components of referencing See slide 8 In-text citation (referencing) See slide 9-11 The reference.

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Presentation on theme: "WISER 1. What is referencing all about? See slide 5-7 The components of referencing See slide 8 In-text citation (referencing) See slide 9-11 The reference."— Presentation transcript:

1 WISER 1

2 What is referencing all about? See slide 5-7 The components of referencing See slide 8 In-text citation (referencing) See slide 9-11 The reference list See slide Style variations within Harvard See slide 16 FAQs (see following 2 slides for details) Further help See slide 34 2

3 1) What do I do if I cannot find the date of a publication? See slide 19 2) When do I need to put page numbers in an in- text citation? See slide 20 3) How do I give an in-text citation for a webpage? See slide 21 4) Do I need to put all the authors names or can I use et al? See slide 22 5) Should I use single or double speech marks around a quote? See slide 23 6) Whats the difference between a bibliography and a reference list? See slide 24 3

4 7) What do I do if the work I am referencing is not in English? See slide 25 8) Should I put the authors first name (personal name) in the reference list? See slide 26 9) What if I got the reference from another book, not one I read myself? See slide ) I have seen references which have a) and b) in. What is that for? See slide 29 11) I have heard about bibliographic software. What is that? See slide 30 12) Ive seen Latin terms used in referencing e.g. et al, op cit and ibid. What do they mean? See slide 31 4

5 Find an academic text (a book or article). Look at a few pages of it. Identify which are the authors own words and which are from other sources. How do you know? What is the proportion of authors words to ideas from other cited authors? 5

6 The aim of a piece of academic writing is to demonstrate your knowledge and ideas. To do this you construct an argument on a given topic. To make your argument strong, you need to supply evidence. This can consist of your own research or the work of other authors. Your ideas are central and the other authors are there merely to support you. It must be clear in your work what is your voice and what is the voice of the other authors. Referencing is the chief means of doing that. 6

7 Look again at the book or article. How do you recognise what is a) paraphrased and what is b) quoted, from other sources? What information is provided in the text about the references used? Look at the list of references at the end of the piece of work. How does this relate to the pages which you looked at? What information is included? Are the same details given for each entry? How do they differ? Why? 7

8 Harvard Referencing (aka Name & Date) In-text citations QuotationsParaphrasing Reference list 8 Note: there are other referencing systems e.g. numbering, footnoting, MLA, OSCLA. Harvard is very common. The rest of this material relates to Harvard Referencing conventions.

9 It is a short indicator of the source of the material the author has drawn on to back up arguments. Full details are available in the reference list. It consists of author surname + year of publication e.g. (Pringle 1996). 9

10 The author surname and the year of publication must both be included. Round brackets are used e.g. (Bloggs 2011). Whether the author sits within the brackets or not depends on whether the name constitutes part of your sentence. e.g. Bloggs has reported higher than usual levels of.... (2011). Higher than usual levels of.... have been reported (Bloggs 2011). 10

11 Page numbers are also required if you have used a direct quote. Dibden has claimed that universal truth is a mere chimera (2009:23). Page numbers are not needed if you paraphrased. Note: the full stop sits after the final bracket. See Style Variation (slide 16) for different ways to indicate the page numbers. 11

12 The reference list provides full details of all the references you drew on. The purpose is for another reader to be able to track down those works, from the details you have provided. Different types of source will require different details to be included. Look at the handout which is available with this powerpoint. (Also see various referencing guidelines on the WISER website )www.uclan.ac.uk/wiser 12

13 In alphabetical order (by 1 st author surname)? Are all necessary details included for each type of source? Is the title (of book or journal) in italics (or underlined or bold)? Is there consistent use of capital letters and punctuation? Author initials or personal names? (not generally both) 13

14 Atkinson, J. and Meager, N. (1986) Changing patterns of work – how companies introduce flexibility to meet new ends. Brighton: IMS/OECD. J. Atkinson, (1984) Manpower strategies for the flexible firm. Personal Management, August. Drucker, P.F. (1988), The coming of the new organisation. Harvard Business Review, January-February, Geary, J. Employment flexibility and human resource management. Work, Employment and Society, Vol. 6, No 2, Minzberg, H. Designing Organisations. Prentice Hall. Kanter, R.M. (1989), 'When giants learn to dance'. New York: Simon and Schuster. Dr Scott Lash and Professor John Urry. (1987), The End of Organized Capitalism. Cambridge and Oxford: Polity and Blackwell. In alphabetical order? Initials or names? (not both) Is the title (of book or journal) in italics? Consistent use of capital letters and punctuation ? 14

15 Atkinson, J. and Meager, N. (1986) Changing patterns of work – how companies introduce flexibility to meet new ends. Brighton: IMS/OECD. Atkinson, J. (1984) Manpower strategies for the flexible firm. Personal Management, Vol 54, No 2, Drucker, P.F. (1988), The coming of the new organisation. Harvard Business Review, January-February, Geary, J. (year ??) Employment flexibility and human resource management. Work, Employment and Society, Vol. 6, No 2, pages ?? Kanter, R.M. (1989) When giants learn to dance. New York: Simon and Schuster. Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1987), The end of organized capitalism. Cambridge and Oxford: Polity and Blackwell. Minzberg, H. (year ??) Designing Organisations. Location?? : Prentice Hall. Note: now in alphabetical order 15

16 Page numbers in in-text citations e.g. (2001p23) or(2001: 23) (2002 pp 23-27) or (2003:23-27) Punctuation In-text citations: e.g. (2001 p23) (2001, p23) In the reference list: e.g. James, M. & Jones, C. James M & Jones C Reference list Titles (of books and articles) can be in italics, underlined or bold. Check whether you have been issued with style guidelines If in doubt, at least BE CONSISTENT 16

17 1) What do I do if I cannot find the date of a publication? See slide 19 2) When do I need to put page numbers in an in- text citation? See slide 20 3) How do I give an in-text citation for a webpage? See slide 21 4) Do I need to put all the authors names or can I use et al? See slide 22 5) Should I use single or double speech marks around a quote? See slide 23 6) Whats the difference between a bibliography and a reference list? See slide 24 17

18 7) What do I do if the work I am referencing is not in English? See slide 25 8) Should I put the authors first name (personal name) in the reference list? See slide 26 9) What if I got the reference from another book, not one I read myself? See slide ) I have seen references which have a) and b) in. What is that for? See slide 29 11) I have heard about bibliographic software. What is that? See slide 30 12) Ive seen Latin terms used in referencing e.g. et al, op cit and ibid. What do they mean? See slide 31 18

19 First look carefully at the source you intend to use. If there is no date is this an indication that it is not authoritative enough to be drawing on as support for your argument. Internet sources are used more and more, and the date is often not clear. While you should consider the point above, if you decide it is indeed a good source but you cannot find the date, you can use n.d. instead (= no date) 19

20 Include page numbers when you have used a direct quote. There is no need to use them when you have simply paraphrased. (See slide 20 for the format of page numbers in an in-text citation) 20

21 Advice often used to be to insert the URL (i.e. the web address) but as many are long and complex this is not compliant with the concept of the in- text citation being a brief marker to indicate the source, full details of which can be found in the reference list. It is best to decide if there is available the name of a) the author or b) the organisation who produced this site/ webpage. If so, use that plus year e.g (WHO 2010). See FAQ1 (slide 19) if you cannot find a publication date. 21

22 There are some different usages in different fields. In general, use first author surname + et al in the in-text citations e.g (Desmond et al 2001). Then list ALL the authors in the reference list. In some subjects all authors are required on first mention in the text. After that, et al can be used. Check any style guidelines you have been given to see if this is required. Note, the format above is more common. See slide 31 on use of Latin terms. 22

23 It doesnt matter but be consistent throughout your essay. It seems double speech marks are used more in American style academic writing, and British style tends to use single. You may occasionally find you need to use both types if there is a quote already in the text you wish to quote. 23

24 They are often used synonymously (i.e. meaning exactly the same thing). A reference list (or simply References) includes ALL sources you have cited in your essay. There should be an exact match i.e. do not include anything which does not have a corresponding in-text citations, and equally ensure all your in-text citations are listed. In some fields however you need to supply a bibliography. This is a list of sources which you drew on significantly to produce the essay, but have not actually cited. If this is required, note, you will also need to supply a reference list. 24

25 There does not seem to be much consistency about this point. I would put the original and a translation in brackets. If the original language does not use Roman script (what English and most European languages are written in), then list the reference using the English translation, and then note in brackets what language the original was in e.g.(original version in Chinese). 25

26 In general only initials are used. The full first name is not needed to be able to find a source in a library or on the internet using the details given in a reference list, so they are not needed. A reference list looks neater and demonstrates a systematic approach if it has a consistent layout. It is easier to include only initials, unless you have noted down full names of authors for everything you have read. 26

27 This is called secondary citation. You need to give the references for both sources. For example, if you read about the work of Bloggs (1999) in a book written by Smith (2003) you would put something like:.. as Bloggs made clear, we should not fail to make clear the role of the poor in... (1999, cited in Smith 2003). Some styles break up the two references with brackets, as follows:.. as Bloggs (1999), cited in (Smith 2003) made clear, we should not fail to make clear the role of the poor in... Continued on next slide 27

28 This is how it would look if the author name was not part of the sentence (see slide 10):.. we should not fail to make clear the role of the poor in... (Bloggs 1999, cited in Smith 2003). In the style which breaks up the two references, it would be as follows:.. we should not fail to make clear the role of the poor in... (Bloggs1999) cited in (Smith 2003). Check any style guidelines you have been given. 28

29 If you have used two sources which are by the same author, both published in the same year, then the in- text citations would look exactly the same, and it would not be clear which source you were referring to. Therefore, add a) to one and add b) to the other. e.g. Bla bla bla bla Jones (2001a). Bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla (Jones 200b) bla bla bla bla. References: Jones (2001a) The concept of self, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Jones (2001b) The consciousness of mind, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 29

30 Programmes are available which help you keep track of all the material you read for your studies and can then insert your in-text references and a reference list in the correct format. Endnote is one of the most well known programmes. See LIS (library services) for more help with using this. If you intend to continue work in academia, it is highly recommended to use such software. 30

31 et al ibid op cit and others. Use this when the work is by more than 2 authors. as per the previous reference as per the previous reference to this author See next slide 31

32 Examples: As Johnson et al state, there is no evidence that.... (2002). There is no evidence that.... (Johnson et al 2002). Note the verb form: Johnson et al state (= they state). et al is widely used. Ibid and op cit are now generally less used. 32

33 Make sure you reference any material you use. Be consistent in the format! Remember this guide to referencing is not exhaustive so consult other referencing guides (e.g. on the WISER website or get in touch if you have further queries (see next slide for contact details). 33

34 Any feedback on the usefulness (or otherwise) of this material would be warmly welcomed. Please contact me: Tania Horák or Ext 3055 ( ) 34


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