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1 www.isis.org ISIS Taxonomy standards:. 2 www.isis.org ISIS Taxonomic List Purposes: 1.To provide a wide standard to help the community put the right.

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Presentation on theme: "1 www.isis.org ISIS Taxonomy standards:. 2 www.isis.org ISIS Taxonomic List Purposes: 1.To provide a wide standard to help the community put the right."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 ISIS Taxonomy standards:

2 2 ISIS Taxonomic List Purposes: 1.To provide a wide standard to help the community put the right animals together – as mates and as populations – both of which have taxonomy as a criterion. 2.To provide local flexibility to meet local needs (taxonomic local preference option).

3 3 What would be the ideal for ISIS taxonomic standards? be scientifically sound but of course scientific opinion varies over time as new data and new interpretations are proposed. be reasonably stable be compatible with IUCN be compatible with CITES Be compatible with national regulatory /permitting bodies Be compatible with state and local regulatory / permit bodies But of course these independent organizations taxonomies are NOT compatible with each other……..

4 4 Taxonomic standards - challenges ISIS faces: o There is no completely accepted global standard for taxonomy. o For example, IUCN and CITES are not fully compatible with each other (and national lists of course differ). o Species standard lists usually do NOT address valid subspecies – as these are seen as somewhat arbitrary by most modern science. o Most sources do NOT provide just updates, but rather a full list we have to scan for changes.

5 5 So what does ISIS do? o At class and higher level, ISIS tries to follow the most globally adopted, authoritative and available lists. o ISIS staff member Laurie Bingaman Lackey maintains ISIS taxonomic lists (and has added 10,000 entries in recent years). o A major consideration is staying reasonably compatible with IUCN, the World Conservation Union (source of the Red List). o IUCN mostly follows global lists, but makes its own exceptions. o ISIS is an international NGO member of IUCN

6 6 Which lists? o ISIS taxonomy standard references: Mammals: o Mammals of the World, 3rd edition, Wilson & Reeder, Smithsonian Institution, i.edu/mammals/msw/http://vertebrates.s i.edu/mammals/msw/ o Common Names of Mammals of the World, Wilson & Cole, Smithsonian Institution, o o For birds: o The most comprehensive website available is Avibase eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp which is hosted by Bird Studies Canada & Birdlife International. The Handbook of the Birds of the World series, which has published 15 of the expected 16 volumes so far, is an emerging standard, and is often used by the zoo world.http://www.bsc- eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp o o The Australasian region uses these sources as well: o Higgins P J (Ed), Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds, Oxford University Press, Melbourne o Schodde R Mason I J 1999, The Directory of Australian Birds. Passerines. SIRO Publishing. o o For reptiles: o Institute for Genomic Research, Peter Uetz arch.phphttp://www.jcvi.org/reptiles/se arch.php o Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, Cogger, Reed 1988 o Crocodilian, Tuatara and Turtle Species of the World, King & Burke, ASC 1989 o Snake Species of the World, McDiarmid 1999 Vol 1 o Living Snakes of the World, Mehrtens, Sterling 1987 o Checklist of Chelonians of the World, Fritz & Havas 2007 o tionen/vertebrate-zoology/vz57-2/57- 2_Contents.pdf tionen/vertebrate-zoology/vz57-2/57- 2_Contents.pdf o o For amphibians: o Amphibian Species of the World, Frost, ASC petology/amphibia/index.htmlhttp://research.amnh.org/her petology/amphibia/index.html o Amphibian Species of the World: Additions and corrections, Duellman, Univ Kansas 1993 o o For fish: Catalog of Fishes, William Eschmeyer, California Academy of Sciences o o For invertebrates: o Note that ISIS does not recognize dealer lists as authoritative. o References recommended by the Invertebrate division of the Smithsonian Institution when the initial ISIS database was assembled: o Synopsis & Classification of Living Organisms, Sybil Parker, ed. McGraw- Hill 1982 (the basis of the higher- level taxonomy) o The Common Insects of North America, Lester Sean & Charles Papp. Harper & Row 1972 o Caribbean Reed Invertebrates & Plants, Patrick Colin. TFH Publications 1978 o A Functional Biology of Echinoderms, John Lawrence. Johns Hopkins 1987 o The Insect Societies, Edward O Wilson. Belknap Press, Harvard 1987 o The Ants, Bert Holldobler & Edward O Wilson. Belknap Press, Harvard 1990 o Intertidal Invertebrates of California, Morris, Abbott & Haderlie. Stanford University Press 1980 o Shrimps, Lobsters & Crabs of the Atlantic Coast of the Eastern United States, Austin Williams. Smithsonian Institution Press 1984 o Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Raymond Moore, ed. Univ of Kansas Press 1956 Part Coelenterata o A Survey of the Ptychodactiara, Corallimorpharia & Actiniaria, Oskar Carlgren. Almquist & Wiksells: Stockholm 1949 o o Others: o Invertebrate Working Group of the NFZG o Grasshopper Country, David Rentz. CSIRO Division of Entomology, Canberra. Published by UNSW Press, ISBN o The CSIRO invert list from Australia cn/http://www.ento.csiro.au/ai cn/ o The OBIS Indo-Pacific Marine Mollusk list o Hexacorallians of the World exacoral/anemone2/index.cfmhttp://hercules.kgs.ku.edu/h exacoral/anemone2/index.cfm o The Phasmid Study Group group.org/ group.org/ o The World Spider Catalog, Version 9.5, Norman I. Platnick, The American Museum of Natural History tomology/spiders/catalog/INTRO1.ht ml tomology/spiders/catalog/INTRO1.ht ml o The World Register of Marine Species – WoRMS o o For domestic animal breeds: World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity, 3rd edition, Scherf, FAO Rome o o Two excellent general web sources are: o Catalogue of Life/Species g/dynamic-checklist/search.phphttp://www.catalogueoflife.or g/dynamic-checklist/search.php o Integrated Taxonomic Information System - ITIS o o Please note that ISIS does not attempt to remain on the "cutting edge" of taxonomy, as defined by any particular journal, research group or committee. ISIS treats taxonomic updates conservatively, preferring to wait until changes are generally accepted in the literature and made available world-wide, preferably on- line, in multi-language format, i.e. FishBase. Frequent taxonomic chang es - and often revision back to a former name - would otherwise be a major logistical challenge, as the current use of Arks is dependent on individual users updating each individual computer. ZIMS will allow immediate updating of taxonomy (and institution lists) to all users.

7 7 ISIS Birds THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE WEBSITE AVAILABLE IS AVIBASE WHICH IS HOSTED BY BIRD STUDIES CANADA & BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL. THE HANDBOOK OF THE BIRDS OF THE WORLD SERIES, WHICH HAS PUBLISHED 15 OF THE EXPECTED 16 VOLUMES SO FAR, IS AN EMERGING STANDARD, AND IS OFTEN USED BY THE ZOO WORLD. THE AUSTRALASIAN REGION USES THESE SOURCES AS WELL: HIGGINS P J (ED), HANDBOOK OF AUSTRALIAN, NEW ZEALAND AND ANTARCTIC BIRDS, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, MELBOURNE SCHODDE R MASON I J 1999, THE DIRECTORY OF AUSTRALIAN BIRDS. PASSERINES. SIRO PUBLISHING.

8 8 ISIS Reptiles o Institute for Genomic Research, Peter Uetz o Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, Cogger, Reed 1988 o Crocodilian, Tuatara and Turtle Species of the World, King & Burke, ASC 1989 o Snake Species of the World, McDiarmid 1999 Vol 1 o Living Snakes of the World, Mehrtens, Sterling 1987 o Checklist of Chelonians of the World, Fritz & Havas 2007 o ate-zoology/vz57-2/57-2_Contents.pdf ate-zoology/vz57-2/57-2_Contents.pdf

9 9 ISIS Amphibians o Amphibian Species of the World, Frost, ASC g/herpetology/amphibia/index. htmlhttp://research.amnh.or g/herpetology/amphibia/index. html o Amphibian Species of the World: Additions and corrections, Duellman, Univ Kansas 1993

10 10 ISIS Fish o Catalog of Fishes, William Eschmeyer, California Academy of Sciences 1998 o FISHBASE. FISHBASE.

11 11 ISIS Invertebrates o Synopsis & Classification of Living Organisms, Sybil Parker, ed. McGraw-Hill 1982 (the basis of the higher- level taxonomy) o The Common Insects of North America, Lester Sean & Charles Papp. Harper & Row 1972 o Caribbean Reed Invertebrates & Plants, Patrick Colin. TFH Publications 1978 o A Functional Biology of Echinoderms, John Lawrence. Johns Hopkins 1987 o The Insect Societies, Edward O Wilson. Belknap Press, Harvard 1987 o The Ants, Bert Holldobler & Edward O Wilson. Belknap Press, Harvard 1990 o Intertidal Invertebrates of California, Morris, Abbott & Haderlie. Stanford University Press 1980 o Shrimps, Lobsters & Crabs of the Atlantic Coast of the Eastern United States, Austin Williams. Smithsonian Institution Press 1984 o Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Raymond Moore, ed. Univ of Kansas Press 1956 Part Coelenterata o A Survey of the Ptychodactiara, Corallimorpharia & Actiniaria, Oskar Carlgren. Almquist & Wiksells: Stockholm 1949 o o Others: o Invertebrate Working Group of the NFZG o Grasshopper Country, David Rentz. CSIRO Division of Entomology, Canberra. Published by UNSW Press, ISBN o The CSIRO invert list from Australia o The OBIS Indo-Pacific Marine Mollusk list o Hexacorallians of the World o The Phasmid Study Group o The World Spider Catalog, Version 9.5, Norman I. Platnick, The American Museum of Natural History o The World Register of Marine Species – WoRMS

12 12 ISIS Breeds (treated as trinomials) World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity, 3rd edition, Scherf, FAO Rome 2000

13 13 So ISIS provides ~100,000 taxonomic names. What rules apply to using them?

14 14 Taxonomic names: ISIS ZIMS Rules: o Birth or capture facility (or earliest reporting holder - closest to the first) usually has the best information on origin and taxonomy – so their taxonomic choice is generally the one ISIS displays as the global taxonomy for an animal.

15 15 Exception to first one wins: Sometimes there is modern genetic evidence available to document that an animal is best assigned a taxonomy other than than recorded by the first reporting holder. In that case, and lonely in that case, if the institution is willing to share this information, ISIS ZIMS allows them to change the global taxonomy displayed for this animal.

16 16 ZIMS Taxonomic Rules o Taxonomic consistency is enforced for one generation (like ARKS) – babies are the lowest common denominator of their parents taxonomies. o This is simply a biological fact. o However, what about the parents parents???

17 17 Future Challenges Sooner or later, taxonomic (in)consistency up the increasingly deep pedigrees available from ISIS, should be made more visible and be reviewed.


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