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Library of Congress Subject Headings Lecture 1. Purpose of Subject Headings Provide additional access to the work via the subject contentProvide additional.

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Presentation on theme: "Library of Congress Subject Headings Lecture 1. Purpose of Subject Headings Provide additional access to the work via the subject contentProvide additional."— Presentation transcript:

1 Library of Congress Subject Headings Lecture 1

2 Purpose of Subject Headings Provide additional access to the work via the subject contentProvide additional access to the work via the subject content Bring together in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminologyBring together in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminology Provide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possibleProvide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possible Provide additional access to the work via the subject contentProvide additional access to the work via the subject content Bring together in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminologyBring together in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminology Provide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possibleProvide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possible Growing petunias in Poughkeepsie Cyberterrorism, electronic warfare… Guppies

3 Cataloging a book on Koi |a The essential book of koi / … 650 _0 |a Koi. Subject headingTitle KoiEssential book of koi KoiComplete introduction to koi and garden pools KoiProfessional's book of koi Subject heading: Koi

4 Specificity of heading |a The essential book of koi / … 650 _0 |a Koi. 650 _0 |a Fishes. Subject headingTitle FishesAdvances in fish research FishesGenshoku gyorui daizukan = Illustrated fishes of the world in colour

5 Indexing The process of analyzing a bibliographic entity and creating entries for it, especially subject entries, in an index.

6 Subject cataloging – two main steps 1)Conceptual analysis - decide what the book is about 2)Translation - conversion of the conceptual analysis into a particular set of authorized terms

7 Lists of authorized terms Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) Subject headings for children (used in conjunction with LCSH)Subject headings for children (used in conjunction with LCSH) Sears List of Subject HeadingsSears List of Subject Headings Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

8 Controlled vocabulary Books Authorized Terms AlligatorsAsparagusBananasBearsCorn

9 Problem: Ambiguity Books Term Faults ?

10 Specify single meaning per term Books Authorized term Faults (Geology)

11 Problem: Synonyms Books on UFOs Authors Terms Flying saucers Unidentified flying objects Alien spacecraft

12 Single authorized term per subject Books Authorized term Unidentified flying objects Flying saucers See Unidentified flying objects

13 Controlled vocabulary (1) Restricted to authorized termsRestricted to authorized terms Increases precision fewer "false drops"Increases precision fewer "false drops" Out-performs keyword searchesOut-performs keyword searches

14 Controlled vocabulary (2) Expensive requires human knowledgeExpensive requires human knowledge

15 Controlled vocabulary (3) Implemented in two ways:Implemented in two ways: –Pre-coordinate indexing –Post-coordinate indexing

16 Pre-coordinate subject heading Examples: String built at time of indexing using the rules of the indexing language RailroadsRight of wayMassachusetts Children as inventors

17 Post-coordinate descriptors Railroads Terms put together at time of retrieval Children AND Right of way Massachusetts AND Inventors AND Railroads Right of way Massachusetts

18 Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) Indexing using terms that are chosen and coordinated at the time of indexingIndexing using terms that are chosen and coordinated at the time of indexing Usually a person trained in indexing assigns the termsUsually a person trained in indexing assigns the terms Can be one term or a combination of terms but they are pre-determined (i.e., they are authority controlled)Can be one term or a combination of terms but they are pre-determined (i.e., they are authority controlled)

19 Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) Older; associated with booksOlder; associated with books Associated with card catalogsAssociated with card catalogs Usually referred to as subject headingsUsually referred to as subject headings Examples:Examples: –Children as air pilots –Humor in education

20 Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) Consistency - we all use the same terms to mean the same thingsConsistency - we all use the same terms to mean the same things More precise - we can obtain things specifically about our topicMore precise - we can obtain things specifically about our topic

21 Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) Prevents false drops - because the phrase has been constructed in a manner that has a specific meaningPrevents false drops - because the phrase has been constructed in a manner that has a specific meaning Children as inventors would obtain works dealing with children in the role of inventors rather than inventors creating objects for children

22 Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (1) Assumes that users know the indexing language--both its vocabulary and syntax.Assumes that users know the indexing language--both its vocabulary and syntax. Everyone has to use the same term; if I don't know the predetermined term or if I have a different perception of the same thing then I may not find the item.Everyone has to use the same term; if I don't know the predetermined term or if I have a different perception of the same thing then I may not find the item.

23 Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (2) Some systems will not allow user to search on subordinate termSome systems will not allow user to search on subordinate term For example, if you have: SeedsCleaningEquipment and supplies The system may not allow you to search on equipment and supplies and find this subject heading

24 Searching for subject heading FranceHistoryRevolution, Art and the RevolutionCatalogs.

25 Searching for subject heading FranceHistoryRevolution, Art and the RevolutionCatalogs.

26 Searching for subject heading FranceHistoryRevolution, Art and the RevolutionCatalogs.

27 Searching for subject heading FranceHistoryRevolution, Art and the RevolutionCatalogs.

28 Searching for subject heading FranceHistoryRevolution, Art and the RevolutionCatalogs.

29 Searching for subject heading FranceHistoryRevolution, Art and the RevolutionCatalogs.

30 Post-Coordinate Indexing (1) Coordination takes place at time of retrievalCoordination takes place at time of retrieval Example would be ERIC descriptorsExample would be ERIC descriptors Newer; associated with documentsNewer; associated with documents

31 Eric descriptors Profiles; Cognitive Ability; Gifted; Cognitive Development; Bilingualism; Monolingualism; Socioeconomic Status; Quasiexperimental Design; Children; Hispanic Americans; Measures (Individuals); Cultural Influences

32 Post-Coordinate Indexing (2) Associated with computers and Boolean logicAssociated with computers and Boolean logic Usually referred to as descriptorsUsually referred to as descriptors Examples:Examples: –Children –Gifted –Foreign countries

33 Gifted children in China gifted children china

34 Gifted childrenChina Gifted childrenChinaAnecdotes Gifted childrenChinaBiography

35 Gifted children in China

36

37 gifted children china

38 No results were found.

39 Gifted children in China gifted children foreign countries

40 97

41 Gifted children in China Intelligence, Gifted, Brain, Children, Comparative Analysis, Foreign Countries

42 Advantages of Post- coordinated Indexing Allowed the freedom to combine authorized terms that are relevantAllowed the freedom to combine authorized terms that are relevant Can do Boolean logicCan do Boolean logic

43 Disadvantage of Post- Coordinated Indexing Lack of precision : Few items really can be described by a single descriptor; most searches involve Boolean logic, truncation, etc. These techniques, while powerful, result in obtaining things we don't want (e.g., children AND inventors will retrieve items about people who invent things for children as well as children as inventors).Lack of precision : Few items really can be described by a single descriptor; most searches involve Boolean logic, truncation, etc. These techniques, while powerful, result in obtaining things we don't want (e.g., children AND inventors will retrieve items about people who invent things for children as well as children as inventors).

44 In general… Post-coordinated indexing increases recall (retrieves more items) but decreases precision. If both the indexer and the searcher know the indexing language, and both do their jobs well, then pre-coordinate indexing will do as well as or better than post- coordinate indexing.

45 Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (1) The reader as focus:The reader as focus: Use terms that the user uses Published 1904 HouseflyMusca domestica

46 Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (2) Published 1904 UnityUnity Objective is to unite all the books about a specific subject under one heading

47 Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (3) UsageUsage Common usage (determined by literary mandate) Old term: HawaiiHistoryRevolution of 1893 New term: HawaiiHistoryOverthrow of the monarchy, 1893 What happened in Hawai`i in 1893?

48 Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (4) SpecificitySpecificity The terms should be as specific as possible (e.g. Calico cats) The terms should be as specific as possible (e.g. Calico cats) In applying headings, rather than using broader subject heading use 2 specific headings if apply In applying headings, rather than using broader subject heading use 2 specific headings if apply Rule of 3: If more than 3 related subject headings use the broader term (e.g., 4 dog breeds) Rule of 3: If more than 3 related subject headings use the broader term (e.g., 4 dog breeds)

49 Library of Congress Subject Headings Established ~1898*Established ~1898* Adopted by many libraries around the worldAdopted by many libraries around the world Now published annuallyNow published annually Now five volumesNow five volumes Referred to as LCSH or The Big Red BooksReferred to as LCSH or The Big Red Books Subject authority records available onlineSubject authority records available online *or 1902 or 1909

50 Types of LCSH headings Single nounsSingle nouns Two word headingsTwo word headings Adjectival headingsAdjectival headings Conjunctive headingsConjunctive headings Prepositional headingsPrepositional headings Glossed headingsGlossed headings Proper nounsProper nouns

51 Authorized terms Authorized terms are in BOLD print

52 Authorized terms in bold Aztec dance Aztec drama USE Nahuatl drama Aztec Eagle, Mexican order of the USE Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca Aztec ethics Aztec dance Aztec drama USE Nahuatl drama Aztec Eagle, Mexican order of the USE Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca Aztec ethics authorizedtermsauthorizedterms

53 Headings Nouns Concepts usually singularConcepts usually singularLoveViscosityBereavement Objects usually pluralObjects usually pluralBirdsBookmobiles

54 Korean-Japanese dictionary

55 Title:Chosŏnŏ sajŏn Subject(s):Korean language Dictionaries Japanese. Japanese language Dictionaries Korean.

56 Headings Nouns (cont'd) Exceptions to the singular/plural generalizationExceptions to the singular/plural generalizationBibliography Movement toward singular nounsMovement toward singular nouns Authorized terms in BOLD printAuthorized terms in BOLD print

57 New terms Cyberspace (May Subd Geog) BTSpace and time RTComputers Telematics Religious aspects Religious aspects Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.] Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.] Cyberterrorism (May Subd Geog) Here are entered works on attacks or threats of attack against any portion of an information infrastructure. Cyberspace (May Subd Geog) BTSpace and time RTComputers Telematics Religious aspects Religious aspects Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.] Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.] Cyberterrorism (May Subd Geog) Here are entered works on attacks or threats of attack against any portion of an information infrastructure.

58 Library of Congress. Subject Authority Cooperative Program

59 Two word headings Adjective & nounAdjective & noun Normal word order (current policy)Normal word order (current policy) Chariot racing Inverted form used to bring noun into initial positionInverted form used to bring noun into initial position Charities, Medical

60 Inverted heading Bull Run, 1st Battle of, Va., 1861

61 Adjectival headings (1) Common adjectiveCommon adjective Dental records Ethnic, national, or geographic adjectiveEthnic, national, or geographic adjective African American librarians Participial (verb form used as adjective) modifiersParticipial (verb form used as adjective) modifiers Applied anthropology

62 Adjectival headings (2) Common noun used as a modifierCommon noun used as a modifier Household pests Proper noun used as modifierProper noun used as modifier Disney characters

63 Conjunctive phrase headings (1) Two or more nouns connected by and or ending with etc.Two or more nouns connected by and or ending with etc. Established to describe a relationshipEstablished to describe a relationship

64 Conjunctive phrase headings (2) May include similar elementsMay include similar elements Wit and humor May be oppositesMay be opposites Right and wrong

65 Prepositional phrase headings Express relationshipsExpress relationships Art in education Inverted (no longer added)Inverted (no longer added) Plants, Effect of alcohol on (New term: PlantsEffect of alcohol on)

66 Prepositional phrase heading examples againstagainst Offenses against property asas Alfalfa as feed forfor Sports for children ofof Illustration of books toto Ceramic to metal bonding

67 Glossed headings Also called parenthetical qualifiersAlso called parenthetical qualifiers Used to reduce ambiguity, clarify identical termsUsed to reduce ambiguity, clarify identical terms Annuals (plants) Bear (Fictitious character : Henson) COGNAC (Computer) UF Combined geometric-network analog computer (Computer)

68 Headings Proper nouns Any proper name can be used as a subject headingAny proper name can be used as a subject heading Not all will appear in LCSHNot all will appear in LCSH Correct form in LC's Name Authority File (NAF)Correct form in LC's Name Authority File (NAF) Name established in accordance with LC's interpretation of AACR2RName established in accordance with LC's interpretation of AACR2R Washington, George, Gandhi family

69 Components of entry HeadingHeading Subdivision for headingSubdivision for heading Syndetic informationSyndetic information Class numbersClass numbers Scope notesScope notes

70 Main terms Peabody picture vocabulary test [BF432.5.P42] BTIntelligence tests Psychological test for children Vocabulary tests Peabodys (Awards) USEPeabody Awards Peace

71 Use references Pacifists, African American USEAfrican American pacifists Direct user from unauthorized heading to authorized heading

72 Use-for references Unidentified flying objects [TL789-TL789.6] UFFlying saucers [Former heading] Saucers, Flying UFO phenomena UFOlogyUFOs See-from reference. UF term should point to authorized term.

73 MARC authority record for Unidentified flying objects 150__ |a Unidentified flying objects 450__ |a Flying saucers 450__ |a Saucers, Flying 450__ |a UFO phenomena 450__ |a UFOlogy 450__ |a UFOs 150__ |a Unidentified flying objects 450__ |a Flying saucers 450__ |a Saucers, Flying 450__ |a UFO phenomena 450__ |a UFOlogy 450__ |a UFOs

74 USE and UF references Ahimsā UFNon-harming (Ethics) Non-injury (Ethics) Reciprocal. Non-harming (Ethics) USE Ahimsā.

75 NT - Narrower terms Cereal products (May Subd Geog) [TP434-TP435] UFGrain products BTSeed products NTAlimentary paste products Cereal-soy blends Cereals, Prepared Enriched cereal products …

76 Narrower and broader terms Elves BTFairies Fairies BT Folklore NTChangelings Elves Fairy poetry Gnomes…

77 RT - Related terms Stars UFSedereal system BTGalaxies RT Circumstellar matter SAnames of individual stars, e.g. Sirius; and headings beginning with the word Stellar NTAlpha Centauri …

78 Related terms - reciprocal Librarians BTInformation scientists Library employees RT Libraries NTAcquisitions librarians … Libraries BTDocumentation Public institutions RT Librarians …

79 Syndetic structure Term BT NT RT RT RT RT

80 Topical subdivisions Decoration and ornament (May Subd Geog) Chippendale style Chippendale style… Queen Anne style Queen Anne style… Decoration and ornament Chippendale style Headings appear in card catalog as: Decoration and ornament Queen Anne style

81 Period subdivisions (1) Church and state (May Subd Geog) Germany Germany HistoryHistory 19th century19th century Ireland Ireland Mexico Mexico…

82 Period subdivisions (2) Church and state (May Subd Geog) Germany Germany HistoryHistory 19th century19th century Church and state Germany History Heading appears in card catalog as:

83 Geographic subdivisions (1) Musical instruments (May Subd Geog) Africa Africa Andes RegionAndes Region Arab countriesArab countries ArmeniaArmenia Asia, CentralAsia, Central… Musical instruments Africa Heading appears in card catalog as:

84 Geographic subdivisions (2) Musical groups (May Subd Geog) Musical groups Italy Heading appears in card catalog as:

85 Geographic subdivisions (3) Construction industry (May Subd Geog) FinanceFinance Law and legislation (May Subd Geog)Law and legislation (May Subd Geog) Construction industry Italy Allowed headings: Construction industry Italy Finance

86 Geographic subdivisions (4) Construction industry (May Subd Geog) FinanceFinance Law and legislation (May Subd Geog)Law and legislation (May Subd Geog) Allowed heading: Construction industry Finance Law and legislation Italy most specific part that can be subdivided geographically

87 Building heading with geographic subdivision Construction industry (May Subd Geog) FinanceFinance Law and legislation (May Subd Geog)Law and legislation (May Subd Geog) 1) Select or construct heading without place Construction industry Finance Law and legislation Italy 2) Determine most specific point where heading can be subdivided 3) Add geog. subd.

88 Scope notes Bongo music [M146] Here are entered compositions not in a specific form or of a specific type for one performer playing bongos, and collections of music in several forms or types for one performer playing bongos. scope note

89 Class references Asteroids (Not Subd Geog) [QB377-QB379 (Planetary theory)] [QB516 (Observations for solar parallax)] [QB651 (Descriptive astronomy)] [QB651 (Descriptive astronomy)] class reference

90 Subject headings in the card catalog Bahamas Anniversaries, etc. Anniversaries, etc. Antiquities Antiquities Description and travel Description and travel History History Bahamas History Cole, Octavia Jane A history of the Bahamas / by Octavia Jane Cole. Pittsburgh : Gambit Press, p. : col. Ill. ; 28 cm. Bibliography: p Bahamas History I. Title. Call no.

91 Subject headings: MARC format Bahamas Anniversaries, etc. Anniversaries, etc. Antiquities Antiquities Description and travel Description and travel History History 6510Bahamas $x History. Library of Congress Subject Headings

92 MARC subject access fields Subject Added Entry--Personal Name (R) Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name (R) Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name (R) Subject Added Entry--Uniform Title (R) Subject Added Entry--Chronological Term (R) Subject Added Entry--Topical Term (R) Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name (R)

93 MARC record with subject headings 1001_|aJohnson, Whittington Bernard, |d |aRace relations in the Bahamas, : |b the nonviolent transformation from a slave to a free society / |c Whittington B. Johnson. 260__ |aFayetteville : |b University of Arkansas Press, |c c __ |axxi, 250 p. : |b ill. ; |c 24 cm. 440_0 |aBlack community studies 504__ |aIncludes bibliographical references (p ) and index. 650_0 |aFree Blacks |z Bahamas |x History. 651_0 |aBahamas |x Race relations. 651_0 |aBahamas |x History.


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