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Parallel Algorithms

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Computation Models Goal of computation model is to provide a realistic representation of the costs of programming. Model provides algorithm designers and programmers a measure of algorithm complexity which helps them decide what is “good” (i.e. performance-efficient)

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Goal for Modeling We want to develop computational models which accurately represent the cost and performance of programs If model is poor, optimum in model may not coincide with optimum observed in practice Model Real World x optimum A optimum B Y

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**Models of Computation What’s a model good for??**

Provides a way to think about computers. Influences design of: Architectures Languages Algorithms Provides a way of estimating how well a program will perform. Cost in model should be roughly same as cost of executing program

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**The Random Access Machine Model**

RAM model of serial computers: Memory is a sequence of words, each capable of containing an integer. Each memory access takes one unit of time Basic operations (add, multiply, compare) take one unit time. Instructions are not modifiable Read-only input tape, write-only output tape

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**Has RAM influenced our thinking?**

Language design: No way to designate registers, cache, DRAM. Most convenient disk access is as streams. How do you express atomic read/modify/write? Machine & system design: It’s not very easy to modify code. Systems pretend instructions are executed in-order. Performance Analysis: Primary measures are operations/sec (MFlop/sec, MHz, ...) What’s the difference between Quicksort and Heapsort??

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**What about parallel computers**

RAM model is generally considered a very successful “bridging model” between programmer and hardware. “Since RAM is so successful, let’s generalize it for parallel computers ...”

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**PRAM [Parallel Random Access Machine]**

(Introduced by Fortune and Wyllie, 1978) PRAM composed of: P processors, each with its own unmodifiable program. A single shared memory composed of a sequence of words, each capable of containing an arbitrary integer. a read-only input tape. a write-only output tape. PRAM model is a synchronous, MIMD, shared address space parallel computer.

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**PRAM model of computation**

Shared memory p processors, each with local memory Synchronous operation Shared memory reads and writes Each processor has unique id in range 1-p

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Characteristics At each unit of time, a processor is either active or idle (depending on id) All processors execute same program At each time step, all processors execute same instruction on different data (“data- parallel”) Focuses on concurrency only

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Variants of PRAM model

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More PRAM taxonomy Different protocols can be used for reading and writing shared memory. EREW - exclusive read, exclusive write A program isn’t allowed to have two processors access the same memory location at the same time. CREW - concurrent read, exclusive write CRCW - concurrent read, concurrent write Needs protocol for arbitrating write conflicts CROW – concurrent read, owner write Each memory location has an official “owner” PRAM can emulate a message-passing machine by partitioning memory into private memories.

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**Sub-variants of CRCW Common CRCW Arbitrary CRCW Priority CRCW**

CW iff all processors writing same value Arbitrary CRCW Arbitrary value of write set stored Priority CRCW Value of min-index processor stored Combining CRCW

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**Why study PRAM algorithms?**

Well-developed body of literature on design and analysis of such algorithms Baseline model of concurrency Explicit model Specify operations at each step Scheduling of operations on processors Robust design paradigm

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**optimal sequential Algorithm**

Work-Time paradigm Higher-level abstraction for PRAM algorithms WT algorithm = (finite) sequence of time steps with arbitrary number of operations at each step Two complexity measures Step complexity T(n) Work complexity W(n) WT algorithm work-efficient if W(n) = Q(TS(n)) optimal sequential Algorithm

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**Designing PRAM algorithms**

Balanced trees Pointer jumping Euler tours Divide and conquer Symmetry breaking . . .

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Balanced trees Key idea: Build balanced binary tree on input data, sweep tree up and down “Tree” not a data structure, often a control structure (e.g., recursion)

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**Alg : Sum Given: Sequence a of n = 2k elements**

Given: Binary associative operator + Compute: S = a an

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**WT description of sum integer B[1..n] forall i in 1 : n do B[i] := ai**

enddo for h = 1 to k do forall i in 1 : n/2h do B[i] := B[2i-1] + B[2i] S := B[1]

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**Points to note about WT pgm**

Global program: no references to processor id Contains both serial and concurrent operations Semantics of forall Order of additions different from sequential order: associativity critical

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**Analysis of scan operation**

Algorithm is correct Q(lg n) steps, Q(n) work EREW model Two variants Inclusive: as discussed Exclusive: s1 = I, sk = x xk-1 If n not power of 2, pad to next power

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**Complexity measures of Sum**

Recall definitions of step complexity T(n) and work complexity W(n) Concurrent execution reduces number of steps

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How to do prefix sum ? Input: Sequence x of n = 2k elements, binary associative operator + Output: Sequence s of n = 2k elements, with sk = x xk Example: x = [1, 4, 3, 5, 6, 7, 0, 1] s = [1, 5, 8, 13, 19, 26, 26, 27]

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**{ List Ranking List ranking problem If d denotes the distance**

Given a singly linked list L with n objects, for each node, compute the distance to the end of the list If d denotes the distance node.d = if node.next = nil node.next.d otherwise Serial algorithm: O(n) Parallel algorithm Assign one processor for each node Assume there are as many processors as list objects For each node i, perform i.d = i.d + i.next.d i.next = i.next.next // pointer jumping {

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**List Ranking - Pointer Jumping**

9/21/00 List Ranking - Pointer Jumping List_ranking(L) for each node i, in parallel do if i.next = nil then i.d = 0 else i.d = 1 while exists a node i, such that i.next != nil do if i.next != nil then i.d = i.d + i.next.d // i updates i itself i.next = i.next.next Analysis After a pointer jumping, a list is transformed into two (interleaved) lists After that, four (interleaved) lists Each pointer jumping doubles the number of lists and halves their length After log n, all lists contain only one node Total time: O(log n)

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9/21/00 List Ranking - Example Fig. 30.2

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**List Ranking - Discussion**

Synchronization is important In step 8 (i.next = i.next.next), all processors must read right hand side before any processor write left hand side The list ranking algorithm is EREW If we assume in step 7 (i.d = i.d + i.next.d) all processors read i.d and then read i.next.d If j.next = i, i and j do not read i.d concurrently Work performance performs O(n log n) work since n processors in O(log n) time Work efficient A PRAM algorithm is work efficient w.r.t another algorithm if two algorithms are within a constant factor Is the link ranking algorithm work-efficient w.r.t the serial algorithm? No, because O(n log n) versus O(n) Speedup S = n / log n

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**Parallel Prefix on a List**

Prefix computation Input <x1, x2, .., xn>, a binary, associative operator Output <y1, y2, .., yn> Prefix computation: yk = x1 x2 .. xk Example if xk = 1 for k=1..n and = + Then yk = k, for k = 1..n Serial algorithm: O(n) Notation [i, j] = xi xi+1 .. xj [k, k] = xk [i, k] [k+1, j] = [i, j] Idea: perform prefix computation on a linked list so that each node k contains [k, k] = xk initially finally each node k contains [1, k] = yk

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**Parallel Prefix on a List (2)**

List_prefix(L, X) // L: list, X: <x1, x2, .., xn> for each node i, in parallel i.y = xi While exists a node i such that i.next != nil do for each node i, in parallel do if i.next != nil then i.next.y = i.y i.next.y // i updates its successor i.next = i.next.next Analysis Initially k-th node has [k,k] as y-value, points to (k+1)-th node At the first iteration, k-th node fetches [k+1,k+1] from its successor and perform [k,k] [k+1,k+1] resulting in [k,k+1] and update its successor At the second iteration k-th node fetches [k+1,k+2] from its successor and perform [k-1,k] [k+1,k+2] resulting in [k-1,k+2] and

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**Parallel Prefix on a List (3)**

9/21/00 Parallel Prefix on a List (3) Fig. 30.3

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**Parallel Prefix on a List (4)**

Running time: O(log n) After log n, all lists contain only one node Work performed: O(n log n) Speedup S = n / log n

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Pointer jumping Fast parallel processing of linked data structures (lists, trees) Convention: Draw trees with edges directed from children to parents Example: Finding the roots of forest represented as parent array P P[i] = j if and only if (i, j) is a forest edge P[i] = i if and only if i is a root

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**Algorithm (Roots of forest)**

forall i in 1:n do S[i] := P[i] while S[i] != S[S[i]] do S[i] := S[S[i]] endwhile enddo

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**Initial state of forest**

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After one iteration

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**After another iteration**

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**Concurrent Read – Finding Roots**

9/21/00 Concurrent Read – Finding Roots Fig. 30.5

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**Analysis of pointer jumping**

Termination detection? At each step, tree distance between i and S[i] doubles unless S[i] is a root CREW model Correctness by induction on h O(lg h) steps, O(n lg h) work TS(n) = O(n) Not work-efficient unless h constant

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**Concurrent Read – Finding Roots**

This is a CREW algorithm Suppose Exclusive-Read is used, what will be the running time? Initially only one node i has root information First iteration: Another node reads from the node i Totally two nodes are filled up Second iteration: Another two nodes can reads from the two nodes Totally four nodes are filled up k-th iteration: 2k-1 nodes are filled up If there are n nodes, k=log n So Find_root with Exclusive-Read takes O(log n). O(log log n) vs. O(log n)

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**Euler tours Technique for fast optimal processing of tree data**

Euler circuit of directed graph: directed cycle that traverses each edge exactly once Represent (rooted) tree by Euler circuit of its directed version

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**Trees = balanced parentheses**

( ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) Key property: The parenthesis subsequence corresponding to a subtree is balanced.

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**Computing the Depth Problem definition**

Given a binary tree with n nodes, compute the depth of each node Serial algorithm takes O(n) time A simple parallel algorithm Starting from root, compute the depths level by level Still O(n) because the height of the tree could be as high as n Euler tour algorithm Uses parallel prefix computation

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**{ Computing the Depth (2) { {**

Euler tour: A cycle that traverses each edge exactly once in a graph It is a directed version of a tree Regard an undirected edge into two directed edges Any directed version of a tree has an Euler tour by traversing the tree in a DFS way forming a linked list. Employ 3*n processors Each node i has fields i.parent, i.left, i.right Each node i has three processors, i.A, i.B, and i.C. Three processors in each node of the tree are linked as follows i.A = i.left.A if i.left != nil i.B if i.left = nil i.B = i.right.A if i.right != nil i.C if i.right = nil i.C = i.parent.B if i is the left child i.parent.C if i is the right child nil if i.parent = nil { { {

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**Computing the Depth (3) Algorithm O(log n)**

Construct the Euler tour for the tree – O(1) time Assign 1 to all A processors, 0 to B processors, -1 to C processors Perform a parallel prefix computation The depth of each node resides in its C processor O(log n) Actually log 3n EREW because no concurrent read or write Speedup S = n/log n

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9/21/00 Computing the Depth (4) Fig. 30.4

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Broadcasting on a PRAM “Broadcast” can be done on CREW PRAM in O(1) steps: Broadcaster sends value to shared memory Processors read from shared memory Requires lg(P) steps on EREW PRAM. M P B

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**Concurrent Write – Finding Max**

Finding max problem Given an array of n elements, find the maximum(s) sequential algorithm is O(n) Data structure for parallel algorithm Array A[1..n] Array m[1..n]. m[i] is true if A[i] is the maximum Use n2 processors Fast_max(A, n) for i = 1 to n do, in parallel m[i] = true // A[i] is potentially maximum for i = 1 to n, j = 1 to n do, in parallel if A[i] < A[j] then m[i] = false if m[i] = true then max = A[i] return max Time complexity: O(1)

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**Concurrent Write – Finding Max**

In step 4 and 5, processors with A[i] < A[j] write the same value ‘false’ into the same location m[i] This actually implements m[i] = (A[i] A[1]) … (A[i] A[n]) Is this work efficient? No, n2 processors in O(1) O(n2) work vs. sequential algorithm is O(n) What is the time complexity for the Exclusive-write? Initially elements “think” that they might be the maximum First iteration: For n/2 pairs, compare. n/2 elements might be the maximum. Second iteration: n/4 elements might be the maximum. log n th iteration: one element is the maximum. So Fast_max with Exclusive-write takes O(log n). O(1) (CRCW) vs. O(log n) (EREW)

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**Simulating CRCW with EREW**

CRCW algorithms are faster than EREW algorithms How much fast? Theorem A p-processor CRCW algorithm can be no more than O(log p) times faster than the best p-processor EREW algorithm Proof by simulating CRCW steps with EREW steps Assumption: A parallel sorting takes O(log n) time with n processors When CRCW processor pi write a datum xi into a location li, EREW pi writes the pair (li, xi) into a separate location A[i] Note EREW write is exclusive, while CRCW may be concurrent Sort A by li O(log p) time by assumption Compare adjacent elements in A For each group of the same elements, only one processor, say first, write xi into the global memory li. Note this is also exclusive. Total time complexity: O(log p)

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**Simulating CRCW with EREW (2)**

9/21/00 Simulating CRCW with EREW (2) Fig. 30.7

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**CRCW versus EREW - Discussion**

Hardware implementations are expensive Used infrequently Easier to program, runs faster, more powerful. Implemented hardware is slower than that of EREW In reality one cannot find maximum in O(1) time EREW Programming model is too restrictive Cannot implement powerful algorithms

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