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CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals Fourth Edition Chapter 10 Access Lists.

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Presentation on theme: "CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals Fourth Edition Chapter 10 Access Lists."— Presentation transcript:

1 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals Fourth Edition Chapter 10 Access Lists

2 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition2 Objectives Describe the usage and rules of access lists Establish standard IP access lists Produce extended IP access lists Apply access lists to interfaces Monitor and verify access lists

3 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition3 Objectives (continued) Create named access lists Use Security Device Manager to create standard and extended IP access lists Use Security Device Manager to create a router firewall

4 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition4 Access Lists: Usage and Rules Access lists –Permit or deny statements that filter traffic based on the source address, destination address, protocol type, and port number of a packet –Available for IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and many other protocols

5 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition5 Access List Usage You can create a standard access list that examines a packet for the packets source header information deny any statement –Implicitly blocks all packets that do not meet the requirements of the access list –Exists even though it is not shown as part of the access list With careful planning, you can create access lists that control which traffic crosses particular links –And which segments of your network will have access to others

6 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition6 Access List Usage (continued)

7 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition7 Problems with Access Lists Lack of planning is one of the most common problems associated with access lists The need to enter the list sequentially into the router also presents problems –You cannot move individual statements once they are entered –When making changes, you must remove the list, using the no access-list [list number] command, and then retype the commands Access lists begin working the second they are applied to an interface

8 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition8 Access List Rules Example of the structure of a standard IP access list: RouterA(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.22.5.2 0.0.0.0 RouterA(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.22.5.3 0.0.0.0 RouterA(config)# access-list 1 permit any Router applies each line in the order in which you type it into the access list The no access-list [list #] command is used to remove an access list

9 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition9 Access List Rules (continued)

10 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition10 Access List Rules (continued) As a general rule, the lines with the most potential matches should be first in the list –So that packets will not undergo unnecessary processing You should avoid unnecessarily long access lists After you create access lists, you must apply them to interfaces so they can begin filtering traffic –You apply a list as either an outgoing or an incoming filter

11 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition11 Access List Rules (continued) In summary, all access lists follow these rules: –Routers apply lists sequentially in the order in which you type them into the router –Routers apply lists to packets sequentially, from the top down, one line at a time –Packets are processed only until a match is made –Lists always end with an implicit deny –Access lists must be applied to an interface as either inbound or outbound traffic filters –Only one list, per protocol, per direction can be applied to an interface –Access lists are effective as soon as they are applied

12 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition12 Standard IP Access Lists Standard IP access lists –Filter network traffic based on the source IP address only –Using a standard IP access list, you can filter traffic by a host IP, subnet, or a network address Configure standard IP access lists: –access-list [list #] [permit|deny] [source address] [source wildcard mask] Routers use wildcards to determine which bits in an address will be significant

13 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition13 Standard IP Access Lists (continued)

14 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition14 Standard IP Access Lists (continued)

15 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition15 Standard IP Access Lists (continued)

16 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition16 Standard IP Access Lists (continued)

17 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition17 Standard IP Access Lists (continued)

18 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition18 Standard IP Access List Examples Standard IP access lists permit or deny packets based only on the source address –Addresses can be a single host address, a subnet address, or a full network address

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20 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition20 Standard IP Access List Examples (continued)

21 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition21 Standard IP Access List Examples (continued) Correct placement of a list is imperative To view the access lists defined on your router, use the show access-lists command –For IP access lists you could also use the show ip access-lists command If you decide that an access list needs to be removed from an interface –You can remove it with the no ip access-group [list #] command

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23 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition23 Standard IP Access List Examples (continued)

24 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition24 Standard IP Access List Examples (continued)

25 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition25 Standard IP Access List Examples (continued)

26 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition26 Standard IP Access List Examples (continued)

27 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition27 Standard IP Access List Examples (continued) Application of the list as an outbound filter on FastEthernet0/0 –See Figure 10-15 Use the show access-lists or show ip access-lists command followed by the show ip interface command –To verify that the list has been entered and applied correctly

28 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition28 Standard IP Access List Examples (continued)

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30 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition30 Standard IP Access List Examples (continued)

31 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition31 Monitoring Standard IP Access Lists Three main commands are available for monitoring access lists on your router –show access-lists –show ip access-lists –show interfaces or show ip interface Use the no access-list [list #] command to remove the list Use the no ip accessgroup [list #][direction] command to remove the application of the list

32 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition32 Extended IP Access Lists Extended IP access lists –Can filter by source IP address, destination IP address, protocol type, and application port number –This granularity allows you to design extended IP access lists that: Permit or deny a single type of IP protocol Filter by a particular port of a particular protocol

33 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition33 Extended IP Access Lists (continued) To configure extended IP access lists, you must create the list and then apply it to an interface using the following syntax –access-list [list #] [permit|deny] [protocol] [source IP address] [source wildcard mask] [operator] [port] [destination IP address] [destination wildcard mask] [operator] [port] [log]

34 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition34 Extended IP Access List Examples

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37 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition37 Extended IP Access List Examples (continued)

38 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition38 The Established Parameter Established parameter –Permits traffic from any host on any network to any destination, as long as the traffic was in response to a request initiated inside the network Example: access-list 100 permit tcp any 15.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 established

39 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition39 Monitoring Extended IP Access Lists The same commands used to monitor standard IP access lists are used to monitor extended IP access lists Extended IP lists keep track of the number of packets that pass each line of an access list –The clear access-list counters [list #] command clears the counters –The no access-list [list#] command removes the list –The no ip access-group [list#] [direction] command removes the application of the list

40 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition40 Monitoring Extended IP Access Lists

41 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition41 Monitoring Extended IP Access Lists

42 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition42 Using Named Lists Named access lists –In Cisco IOS versions 11.2 and above, names instead of numbers can be used to identify lists To name a standard IP access list, use the following syntax: RouterC(config)#ip access-list standard [name] To name an extended IP access list, use the following syntax: RouterC(config)#ip access-list extended [name]

43 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition43 Using Named Lists (continued) Once the list is named, the permit or deny statement is entered The commands follow the same syntax as unnamed lists –The beginning part of the command is not included To apply a standard IP named list to an interface, the syntax is: RouterC(config-if)#ip access-group [name] [in | out]

44 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition44 Using Named Lists (continued) Advantages: –Allows you to maintain security by using an easily identifiable access list –Removes the limit of 100 lists per filter type –With named access lists lines can be selectively deleted in the ACL –Named ACLs provide greater flexibility to network administrators who work in environments where large numbers of ACLs are needed

45 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition45 Controlling VTY Line Access Access lists are used for both traffic flow and security One useful security feature of access lists is restricting access to telnet on your router –By controlling VTY line access You must first create a standard IP access list that permits the management workstation RouterA(config)#access-list 12 permit 192.168.12.12 0.0.0.0 Then, it must be applied to the VTY lines access-class [acl #] in | out

46 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition46 Controlling VTY Line Access (continued) To apply access list 12 to the VTY lines, use the following command: RouterA(config)#line vty 0 4 RouterA(config-line)#access-class 12 in The commands to restrict access to the VTY lines to network 192.168.12.0/24 only are: RouterA(config)#access-list 13 permit 192.168.12.0 0.0.0.255 RouterA(config)#line vty 0 4 RouterA(config-line)#access-class 13 in

47 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition47 Using Security Device Manager to Create Access Control Lists Using the SDM, an administrator can accomplish all the tasks that formerly required use of the CLI interface SDM allows you to easily create a standard or an extended access list or, as it is known in the SDM, an Access Control List (ACL)

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54 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition54 Using Security Device Manager to Create a Router Firewall Unlike the CLI, the SDM allows a router to be configured as a firewall

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58 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition58 Using Security Device Manager to Create a Router Firewall (continued)

59 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition59 Using Security Device Manager to Create a Router Firewall (continued)

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61 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition61 Summary Access lists are one of the most important IOS tools for controlling network traffic and security Access lists are created in a two-step process All access lists are created sequentially and applied sequentially to all packets that enter an interface where the list is applied By default, access lists always end in an implicit deny any statement Only one access list per direction (inbound or outbound) per protocol can be applied to an interface

62 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition62 Summary (continued) Standard IP access lists allow you to filter traffic based on the source IP address of a packet Extended IP access lists filter traffic based on source, destination, protocol type, and application type Access lists can be used to restrict telnet by controlling VTY line access Ranges of numbers represent all access lists

63 CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition63 Summary (continued) The SDM can be used to configure both standard and extended ACLs via the Additional Tasks configuration tab The SDM can be used to configure a router as either a Basic or Advanced firewall The main difference between a Basic and Advanced firewall is the ability to configure DMZ interfaces in the Advanced firewall setup wizard


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