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Linked Lists

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**List Overview Linked lists Basic operations of linked lists**

Abstract data type (ADT) Basic operations of linked lists Insert, find, delete, print, etc. Variations of linked lists Circular linked lists Doubly linked lists

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**Linked Lists A linked list is a series of connected nodes**

B C Head A linked list is a series of connected nodes Each node contains at least A piece of data (any type) Pointer to the next node in the list Head: pointer to the first node The last node points to NULL node A data pointer

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**A Simple Linked List Class**

Linked lists are made up of Nodes Declare Node class for the nodes data: double-type data in this example next: a pointer to the next node in the list struct node { int data; struct node *next; /* pointer to next element in list */ } LLIST;

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**Operations on Linked List**

LLIST *list_add(LLIST **p, int i); void list_remove(LLIST **p); LLIST **list_search(LLIST **n, int i); void list_print(LLIST *n);

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**Inserting a new node Steps**

Insert a node with data equal to x after the index’th elements. (i.e., when index = 0, insert the node as the first element; when index = 1, insert the node after the first element, and so on) If the insertion is successful, return the inserted node. Otherwise, return NULL. (If index is < 0 or > length of the list, the insertion will fail.) Steps Locate index’th element Allocate memory for the new node Point the new node to its successor Point the new node’s predecessor to the new node index’th element newNode

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**Inserting a new node Possible cases of InsertNode**

Insert into an empty list Insert in front Insert at back Insert in middle But, in fact, only need to handle two cases Insert as the first node (Case 1 and Case 2) Insert in the middle or at the end of the list (Case 3 and Case 4)

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**LLIST *list_add(LLIST **p, int i)**

{ if (p == NULL) return NULL; LLIST *n = (LLIST *) malloc(sizeof(LLIST)); if (n == NULL) n->next = *p; /* the previous element (*p) now becomes the "next" element */ *p = n; /* add new empty element to the front (head) of the list */ n->data = i; return *p; }

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Finding a node Search for a node with the value equal to x in the list. If such a node is found, return its position. Otherwise, return 0. LLIST **list_search(LLIST **n, int i) { if (n == NULL) return NULL; while (*n != NULL) if ((*n)->data == i) return n; } n = &(*n)->next;

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**Deleting a node Steps Like InsertNode, there are two special cases**

int DeleteNode(double x) Delete a node with the value equal to x from the list. If such a node is found, return its position. Otherwise, return 0. Steps Find the desirable node (similar to FindNode) Release the memory occupied by the found node Set the pointer of the predecessor of the found node to the successor of the found node Like InsertNode, there are two special cases Delete first node Delete the node in middle or at the end of the list

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**void list_remove(LLIST **p) /* remove head */**

{ if (p != NULL && *p != NULL) LLIST *n = *p; *p = (*p)->next; free(n); }

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**Printing all the elements**

void List_Print(void) Print the data of all the elements Print the number of the nodes in the list

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**void list_print(LLIST *n)**

{ if (n == NULL) printf("list is empty\n"); } while (n != NULL) printf("print %p %p %d\n", n, n->next, n->data); n = n->next;

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**Using all these routines**

int main(void) { LLIST *n = NULL; list_add(&n, 0); /* list: 0 */ list_add(&n, 1); /* list: 1 0 */ list_add(&n, 2); /* list: */ list_add(&n, 3); /* list: */ list_add(&n, 4); /* list: */ list_print(n); list_remove(&n); /* remove first (4) */ list_remove(&n->next); /* remove new second (2) */ list_remove(list_search(&n, 1)); /* remove cell containing 1 (first) */ list_remove(&n->next); /* remove second to last node (0) */ list_remove(&n); /* remove last (3) */ return 0; }

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**Variations of Linked Lists**

Circular linked lists The last node points to the first node of the list How do we know when we have finished traversing the list? (Tip: check if the pointer of the current node is equal to the head.) A B C Head

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**Variations of Linked Lists**

Doubly linked lists Each node points to not only successor but the predecessor There are two NULL: at the first and last nodes in the list Advantage: given a node, it is easy to visit its predecessor. Convenient to traverse lists backwards A B C Head

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**Array versus Linked Lists**

Linked lists are more complex to code and manage than arrays, but they have some distinct advantages. Dynamic: a linked list can easily grow and shrink in size. We don’t need to know how many nodes will be in the list. They are created in memory as needed. In contrast, the size of a C++ array is fixed at compilation time. Easy and fast insertions and deletions To insert or delete an element in an array, we need to copy to temporary variables to make room for new elements or close the gap caused by deleted elements. With a linked list, no need to move other nodes. Only need to reset some pointers.

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