Presentation on theme: "Chapter 29 Reading Quiz About how many species of plants inhabit earth today? What are the two generations in the “alternation of generations”? What structure."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 29 Reading QuizAbout how many species of plants inhabit earth today?What are the two generations in the “alternation of generations”?What structure made of waxes coats most land plant’s leaves?What is the purpose of the structure in #3?Which vascular tissue transports water & minerals?
2 1. List the characteristics that distinguish plants from organisms in the other kingdoms. Are multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic autotrophshave cell walls with celluloseStore food as starch
3 2. Diagram a generalized plant life cycle indicating which generation is sporophyte/gametophyte, which individuals are haploid/diploid, where meiosis occurs and where mitosis occurs.
4 3. Describe four major periods of plant evolution that opened new adaptive zones on land. 475 million years ago origin of plants from aquatic ancestors (green algae)400 million years ago diversification of seedless vascular plants360 million years ago origin of seed plants130 million years ago beginning of the flowering plants
6 4. Distinguish between the categories division and phylum. Division is the same as phylum, but in plantsFor example: in plants the taxonomic order is KingdomDivision (instead of Phylum)ClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
7 Hepatophyta liverworts Anthocerophyta hornworts Seedless Vascular 5. Using the classification scheme presented in the text, list the plant divisions; give the common name for each; and categorize them into nonvascular, vascular seedless and vascular seed plants.NonvascularBryophyta mossesHepatophyta liverwortsAnthocerophyta hornwortsSeedless VascularLycophyta lycophytesSphenophyta horsetailsPterophyta fernscontinued…
10 6. Provide evidence to defend the position that plants evolved from green algae. Homologies in:Cell wall composition (cellulose)Structure and pigmentation of chloroplastsBiochemical similarity showing a genetic relationship
11 7. Describe three adaptations that made bryophytes’ move onto land possible. Waxy cuticles (prevents dessication, or drying out on land)Protection of gametes (seed coat, tough membranes)Protection of developing embryos
12 8. Explain how bryophytes are still tied to water. They still need water to reproduce – flagellated sperm swim to eggNo vascular tissue to carry water – must happen through diffusion, capillary action, and cytoplasmic streaming
13 9. List and distinguish among the three divisions of Bryophytes. Bryophyta the mossesRhizoids grip groundhave stem & leaflike structuresHepatophyta the liverwortsBodies divided into lobesCan reproduce asexually from gemmaeAnthocerophyta the hornwortsSporophyte is horn-shapedCells have one large chloroplastMost closely related to vascular plants
15 10. Diagram the life cycle of a moss including gamete production, fertilization, and spore production.Separate male and female gametophytes with antheridia and archegoniaSperm swims to archegonium and fertilizes eggDiploid zygote divides by mitosis and develops into an embryonic sporophyteSporophyte grows from archegonium and remains attachedTop of sporophyte is sporangium where meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop – spores scatterSpores germinate by mitotic developmentHaploid protonema continue to grow and differentiate eventually forming sexually mature gametophytes, completing the life cycle
17 Algae live in water; don’t need vascular tissue or seeds 11. Compare environmental conditions faced by algae in an aquatic environment and plants in a terrestrial environment.Obvious issues:Algae live in water; don’t need vascular tissue or seedsPlants live on land where it’s dry; need seeds and vascular tissue to survive most effectively
18 12. Provide evidence that suggests the division Bryophyta is a phylogenetic branch separate from vascular plants.The life cycle is different the haploid gametophyte is the dominant generation in mosses and other bryophytes; the sporophytes are smaller and depend on the gametophyte for water and nutrients
20 13. Describe six adaptations of vascular plants, including modifications of the life cycle and modifications of the sporophyte that have contributed to their success on land.Regional specialization of the plant body (roots, stems, leaves)Structural support – lignin embedded into celluloseVascular system – xylem (water) and phloem (food)Pollen – eliminated need for water to transport gametesSeedsIncreased dominance of diploid sporophyte
21 14. List and distinguish among the three extant (not extinct) divisions of seedless vascular plants. Lycophyta the club mosses and ground pinesRhizomes and true leavesSphenophyta the horsetailsLive in damp locations with flagellated spermAre homosporous with a conspicuous sporophyteHave free-living gametophytesPterophyta about 12,000 species of fernsDominant sporophyte, homosporous, free-living gametophyteWater needed for fertilization
23 15. Distinguish between homosporous and heterosporous. - produces a single type of spore- each spore develops into a plant with both sex organsHeterosporous - produces 2 types of spores1. Megaspores – female with archegonia2. Microspores – male with antheridia
24 16. Distinguish among spore, sporophyte, sporophyll, and sporangium. Spore – haploid cell that produces the gametophyteSporophyte – multicellular diploid form resulting from the union of gametes; produces sporesSporophyll – where sporangia are found – leaves that are specialized for reproductionSporangium – capsule in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop
25 17. Diagram the life cycle of a fern including spore production, gamete production and fertilization.Spore production in sporangium from the sporophyteGamete production from the antheridium and archegonium on the gametophyteFertilization egg (n) + sperm (n) becomes zygote (2n) and grows to become new sporophyte
28 18. Point out the major life cycle differences between mosses and ferns. sporophyte is dominant in ferns, not in mossesSpores are protected by sporopollenin in ferns, not mosses
29 19. Describe how coal is formed and during which geological period the most extensive coal beds were produced.happened in the Carboniferous period- organic rubble of the seedless plants accumulated as peat- later it was covered by the sea and sediments, heat and pressure transformed the peat into coalThe End!