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Chapter Lists Dr Zeinab Eid

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3.3 Doubly-Linked Lists It is a way of going both directions in a linked list, forward and reverse. Many applications require a quick access to the predecessor node of some node in list. Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Advantages over Singly-linked Lists**

Quick update operations: such as: insertions, deletions at both ends (head and tail), and also at the middle of the list. A node in a doubly-linked list store two references: A next link; that points to the next node in the list, and A prev link; that points to the previous node in the list. Dr Zeinab Eid

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Doubly Linked List A doubly linked list provides a natural implementation of the List ADT Nodes implement Position and store: element link to the previous node link to the next node Special trailer and header nodes prev next elem node trailer header nodes/positions elements Dr Zeinab Eid

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Sentinel Nodes To simplify programming, two special nodes have been added at both ends of the doubly-linked list. Head and tail are dummy nodes, also called sentinels, do not store any data elements. Head: header sentinel has a null-prev reference (link). Tail: trailer sentinel has a null-next reference (link). Dr Zeinab Eid

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**What we see from a Douby-linked List?**

A doubly-linked list object would need to store the following: Reference to sentinel head-node; Reference to sentinel tail-node; and Size-counter that keeps track of the number of nodes in the list (excluding the two sentinels). Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Empty Doubly-Linked List: **

Using sentinels, we have no null-links; instead, we have: head.next = tail tail.prev = head Singl Node List: Size = 1 This single node is the first node, and also is the last node: first node is head.next last node is tail.prev header trailer first last header trailer Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Insertion into a Doubly-Linked List**

AddFirst Algorithm To add a new node as the first of a list: Algorithm addFirst() new(T) T.data ← y T.next ← head.next T.prev ← head head.next.prev ← T {Order is important} head.next ← T Size++ This Algorithm is valid also in case of empty list. Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Insertion into a Doubly-Linked List (Cont.)**

AddLast Algorithm To add a new node as the last of list: Algorithm addLast() new(T) T.data ← y T.next ← tail T.prev ← tail.prev tail.prev.next ← T {Order is important} tail.prev ← T Size++ This Algorithm is valid also in case of empty list. Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Removal from a Doubly-Linked List**

RemoveLast Algorithm Notice that before removal, we must check for empty list. If not, we will remove the last node in the list, as shown in Figure above. Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Algorithm removeLast() If size = 0 then output “error” **

else { T ← tail.prev y ← T.data T.prev.next ← tail tail.prev ← T.prev delete(T) {garbage collector} size-- return y } This algorithm is valid also in case of a single node, size=1, in which case we’ll get an empty list. Algorithm is one statement. Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Insertion p A B C p q A B C X p q A B X C**

We visualize operation AddAfter(p, X), which returns position q p A B C p q A B C X p q A B X C Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Insertion Algorithm Algorithm insertAfter(p,e): Create a new node v**

v.setElement(e) v.setPrev(p) {link v to its predecessor} v.setNext(p.getNext()) {link v to its successor} (p.getNext()).setPrev(v) {link p’s old successor to v} p.setNext(v) {link p to its new successor, v} return v {the position for the element e} Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Deletion A B C D p A B C p D A B C**

We visualize remove(p), where p = last() A B C D p A B C p D A B C Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Deletion Algorithm Algorithm remove(p):**

t = p.element {a temporary variable to hold the return value} (p.getPrev()).setNext(p.getNext()) {linking out p} (p.getNext()).setPrev(p.getPrev()) p.setPrev(null) {invalidating the position p} p.setNext(null) return t Dr Zeinab Eid

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Performance In the implementation of the List ADT by means of a doubly linked list The space used by a list with n elements is O(n) The space used by each position of the list is O(1) All the operations of the List ADT run in O(1) time Operation element() of the Position ADT runs in O(1) time Dr Zeinab Eid

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Position ADT (§ 5.2.2) The Position ADT models the notion of place within a data structure where a single object is stored It gives a unified view of diverse ways of storing data, such as a cell of an array a node of a linked list Just one method: object element(): returns the element stored at the position Dr Zeinab Eid

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List ADT (§ 5.2.3) The List ADT models a sequence of positions storing arbitrary objects It establishes a before/after relation between positions Generic methods: size(), isEmpty() Accessor methods (all return type Position): first(), last() prev(p), next(p) Update methods: replace(p, e) remove(p) insertBefore(p, e) insertAfter(p, e) insertFirst(e) insertLast(e) Dr Zeinab Eid

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**Implementing Vector ADT with List ADT**

size(), isEmpty() first(), last() prev(p), next(p) replace(p, e) remove(p) insertBefore(p, e) insertAfter(p, e) insertFirst(e) insertLast(e) Vector ADTs: size() and isEmpty() elemAtRank(integer r) object replaceAtRank(integer r, object o) insertAtRank(integer r, object o) object removeAtRank(integer r) Dr Zeinab Eid

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