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Splash Screen Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1The United States Focuses on Vietnam Section 2Going to War in Vietnam Section 3Vietnam Divides the.

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Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1The United States Focuses on Vietnam Section 2Going to War in Vietnam Section 3Vietnam Divides the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Splash Screen

3 Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1The United States Focuses on Vietnam Section 2Going to War in Vietnam Section 3Vietnam Divides the Nation Section 4The War Winds Down Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

4 Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

5 Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Describe the nationalist motives of Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh. Explain the origins of American involvement in Vietnam during the 1950s. Section 1: The United States Focuses on Vietnam

6 Intro 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: Going to War in Vietnam Describe how President Johnson deepened American involvement in Vietnam. Discuss how the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese were able to frustrate the American military.

7 Intro 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 3: Vietnam Divides the Nation Analyze why support for the war began to weaken. Describe the motives of those in the antiwar movement.

8 Intro 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 4: The War Winds Down Explain the events of Nixons first administration that inspired more antiwar protests. Summarize the major lessons the United States learned from the Vietnam War experience.

9 Intro 6 Why It Matters The Vietnam War created very bitter divisions within the United States. Supporters argued that patriotism demanded that communism be halted. Opponents argued that intervening in Vietnam was immoral. Many young people protested or resisted the draft. Victory was not achieved, although more than 58,000 American soldiers died. After the war, the nation had many wounds to heal.

10 Intro 7 The Impact Today Changes brought about by the war are still evident in the United States today. The nation is reluctant to commit troops overseas. The War Powers Act limits a presidents power to involve the nation in war. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

11 Intro 8 continued on next slide

12 Intro 9

13 End of Intro

14 Section 1-1 Guide to Reading American efforts to stop the spread of communism led to U.S. involvement in the affairs of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Key Terms and Names domino theory guerrilla Dien Bien Phu Ngo Dinh Diem

15 Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Organizing As you read about the increasing involvement of the United States in Vietnam, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 772 of your textbook providing reasons that the United States aided France in Vietnam. Describe the nationalist motives of Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh. Reading Objectives Explain the origins of American involvement in Vietnam during the 1950s.

16 Section 1-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Government and Democracy American involvement in Vietnam was a reflection of Cold War strategy.

17 Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

18 Section 1-5 Early American Involvement in Vietnam Although little was known about Vietnam in the late 1940s and early 1950s, American officials felt Vietnam was important in their campaign to stop the spread of communism. (pages 772–774)

19 Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. During the early 1900s, nationalism was strong in Vietnam. As the Vietnamese sought independence or reform of the French colonial government, several political parties formed. One of the leaders of the nationalist movement was Ho Chi Minh who, during his travels to the Soviet Union, had become an advocate of communism. Early American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) (pages 772–774)

20 Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Ho Chi Minh was exiled to the Soviet Union and China. Upon his return to Vietnam in 1941, Japan had control of the country. He organized the nationalist group, Vietminh, which united Communists and non-Communists to force Japan out. In 1930 Ho Chi Minh helped form the Indochinese Communist Party and worked to overthrow the French. Early American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) (pages 772–774)

21 Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. France sent in troops to regain its colonial empire. France asked the United States for help. American officials were against France controlling Vietnam, but they did not want Vietnam to be Communist either. With the Allies victory over Japan in 1945, Ho Chi Minh and his forces declared Vietnam an independent nation. Early American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) (pages 772–774)

22 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Eisenhower defended the United States policy in Vietnam with the domino theory–the belief that if Vietnam fell to communism, other nations in Southeast Asia would do the same. The United States, under the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, supported the French military and their campaign against the Vietminh. Early American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) (pages 772–774)

23 Section 1-10 Which two events convinced Truman to help France? The two events were the fall of China to communism and the outbreak of the Korean War. It showed Americans that the Soviet Union was beginning a major push for communism in East Asia. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Early American Involvement in Vietnam (cont.) (pages 772–774)

24 Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Vietminh Drive Out the French Despite aid from the United States, the French struggled against the Vietminh. The Vietminh frequently used the tactics of guerrillas, or irregular troops who usually blend into civilian population and are difficult for regular armies to fight. They used hit-and-run and ambush tactics. (pages 774–775)

25 Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1954 the French commander ordered his forces to occupy the mountain town of Dien Bien Phu. A huge Vietminh force surrounded the town. The defeated French were forced to make peace and withdraw from Indochina. The Vietminh Drive Out the French (cont.) (pages 774–775)

26 Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Negotiations to end the conflict, called the Geneva Accords, temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17 th parallel, with Ho Chi Minh and the Vietminh controlling North Vietnam and a pro-Western regime in South Vietnam. The Accords also recognized Cambodias independence. The Vietminh Drive Out the French (cont.) (pages 774–775)

27 Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1956 elections were held to form a single government. The United States stepped in to protect the new government in the South led by Ngo Dinh Diem, a pro-Westerner and anti-Communist. The tension between North and South Vietnam escalated with the United States caught in the middle. The Vietminh Drive Out the French (cont.) (pages 774–775)

28 Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What were the provisions of the Geneva Accords? Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel with Ho Chi Minh and the Vietminh in control of North Vietnam, and a pro-Western regime in control of the South led by Ngo Dinh Diem. In 1956 elections were to be held to reunite the country under a single government. The Accords also recognized Cambodias independence. The Vietminh Drive Out the French (cont.) (pages 774–775)

29 Section 1-16 Checking for Understanding __ 1.armed band that carries out surprise attacks and sabotage rather than open warfare __ 2.the belief that if one nation in Asia fell to the Communists, neighboring countries would follow A.domino theory B.guerrilla Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A B

30 Section 1-17 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain the goals of the Vietminh. The Vietminh fought for independence first from Japan, then from France. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

31 Section 1-18 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government and Democracy Why did Ngo Dinh Diem refuse to hold countrywide elections in Vietnam in 1956? He feared he would lose to the Vietnamese Communist party.

32 Section 1-19 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Interpreting Why do you think the United States supported the government of Ngo Dinh Diem? He was pro-Western and anti-communist.

33 Section 1-20 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Study the Vietnam scene on page 773 of your textbook. How would you describe the contrast between American and Vietnamese societies? How do you think this contrast influenced American thinking toward the war? Since Vietnam appeared to be less prosperous than the United States, it was easy to believe the United States could defeat the Vietnamese.

34 Section 1-21 Close Explain the origins of American involvement in Vietnam during the 1950s.

35 End of Section 1

36 Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading After providing South Vietnam with much aid and support, the United States finally sent in troops to fight as well. Vietcong Main Idea Key Terms and Names Gulf of Tonkin Resolution napalm Agent Orange Ho Chi Minh trail

37 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Taking Notes As you read about the beginnings of the Vietnam War, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 776 of your textbook. Describe how President Johnson deepened American involvement in Vietnam. Reading Objectives Discuss how the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese were able to frustrate the American military.

38 Section 2-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Science and Technology American military procedures differed significantly from those of the Vietcong troops.

39 Section 2-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

40 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. American Involvement Deepens Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After Ngo Dinh Diem refused to hold national elections, Ho Chi Minh and his followers created a new guerrilla army known as the Vietcong. Their goal was to reunify North and South Vietnam. The United States continued to send aid to South Vietnam. (pages 776–778)

41 Section 2-6 The Vietcongs power, however, continued to grow because many Vietnamese opposed Diems government. President Kennedy continued the nations policy of support for South Vietnam, agreeing with past presidents that Southeast Asia was important in the battle against communism. American Involvement Deepens (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 776–778)

42 Section 2-7 The unpopularity of South Vietnams President Diem increased because his government was corrupt, he created strategic hamlets, and he discriminated against Buddhism, one of the countrys most widely practiced religions. Diem was overthrown and later executed. This further weakened South Vietnams government, forcing the United States to become more involved. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. American Involvement Deepens (cont.) (pages 776–778)

43 Section 2-8 After Kennedys assassination, President Lyndon Johnson inherited the problem of Vietnam. American Involvement Deepens (cont.) (pages 776–778)

44 Section 2-9 Why were Diems strategic hamlets unpopular with the peasants? The peasants resented being uprooted from their homes where they had worked to build farms and where many of their ancestors were buried. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. American Involvement Deepens (cont.) (pages 776–778)

45 Section 2-10 Johnson and Vietnam Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. At first, President Johnson was cautious regarding Vietnam, yet he was determined to prevent South Vietnam from becoming Communist. Politically, Democrats needed to keep South Vietnam from becoming Communist, or Republicans would use it against them. (pages 778–779)

46 Section 2-11 On August 2, 1964, President Johnson announced that North Vietnamese torpedo boats fired on two American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. A similar attack reportedly occurred two days later. The Senate and the House passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7, 1964, authorizing the president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack on U.S. forces. Congress had given its war powers to the president. Johnson and Vietnam (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 778–779)

47 Section 2-12 After the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was passed, the Vietcong began attacking bases where American advisers were stationed in South Vietnam. After an attack in February 1965, Johnson sent aircrafts to strike in North Vietnam. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Johnson and Vietnam (cont.) (pages 778–779)

48 Section 2-13 While the polls showed that Johnsons approval rating had increased, some dissenters in the White House warned that if the United States became too involved, it would be difficult to get out. In March 1965, however, Johnson increased American involvement, and American soldiers were fighting alongside the South Vietnamese troops against the Vietcong. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Johnson and Vietnam (cont.) (pages 778–779)

49 Section 2-14 Why did President Johnson expand American involvement in Vietnam in 1964? Johnson wanted to prevent South Vietnam from becoming Communist. He did not want to lose Vietnam, because he feared that the Republicans would blame his administration for losing Vietnam to communism. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Johnson and Vietnam (cont.) (pages 778–779)

50 Section 2-15 A Bloody Stalemate Emerges Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. By 1965 some 180,000 American combat troops were fighting in Vietnam, with the number doubling by Many Americans believed they could win in Vietnam. (pages 779–781)

51 Section 2-16 To take Vietcongs hiding places away, American planes dropped napalm, a jellied gasoline that explodes on contact, and Agent Orange, a chemical that strips leaves from trees and shrubs. Farmlands and forests were turned into wastelands. A Bloody Stalemate Emerges (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 779–781)

52 Section 2-17 Americans underestimated the Vietcongs strength, stamina, and morale. Johnson refused to order a full invasion of North Vietnam, fearing China would get involved in the war. President Johnson also refused to allow a full-scale attack on the Vietcongs supply line, known as the Ho Chi Minh trail. This made winning difficult. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. A Bloody Stalemate Emerges (cont.) (pages 779–781)

53 Section 2-18 As American casualties increased, many American citizens began questioning the United Statess involvement in the war. A Bloody Stalemate Emerges (cont.) (pages 779–781)

54 Section 2-19 Why were the American troops frustrated by the Vietcong? The Vietcong used ambushes, booby traps, and hit-and-run tactics. The Vietcong could blend in with the general population in cities and in the countryside and then vanish. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. A Bloody Stalemate Emerges (cont.) (pages 779–781)

55 Section 2-20 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a jellied gasoline used for bombs __ 2.the guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in Vietnam, also known as the National Liberation Front A.Vietcong B.napalm Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A B

56 Section 2-21 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain how the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution affected the powers of Congress and the presidency. It gave congressional war powers to the president.

57 Section 2-22 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Science and Technology Why did the United States use napalm and Agent Orange in its fight against the Vietcong? Napalm and Agent Orange were used to destroy the landscape so the Vietcong could not hide in the jungle.

58 Section 2-23 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Why did fighting in Vietnam turn into a stalemate by the mid-1960s? The Vietcong showed no signs of surrendering, and Johnson refused to order a full-scale invasion.

59 Section 2-24 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Look closely at the photograph of Buddhist monk Reverend Quang Duc on page 777 of your textbook. What in the photograph suggests that this event was planned by Buddhists to protest their treatment in South Vietnam? The presence of the Buddhist onlookers suggests a planned event.

60 Section 2-25 Close Discuss Vietcong tactics.

61 End of Section 2

62 Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading The experience of Vietnam produced sharp divisions between Americans who supported the war and those who did not. William Westmoreland Main Idea Key Terms and Names credibility gap teach-in dove hawk Tet offensive

63 Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about Americans reactions to the Vietnam War, complete a graphic organizer like the one on page 784 of your textbook to list the reasons for opposition to the war. Analyze why support for the war began to weaken. Reading Objectives Describe the motives of those in the antiwar movement.

64 Section 3-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Civic Rights and Responsibilities Many Americans protested their countrys involvement in the Vietnam War.

65 Section 3-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

66 Section 3-5 A Growing Credibility Gap Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. When American troops first entered the Vietnam War, many Americans supported the military effort. As the war in Vietnam continued to drag on, public support decreased. Americans began to question the government and believed a credibility gap had developed, making it difficult to believe what the Johnson administration said about the war. (pages 784–785)

67 Section 3-6 Why did Americans believe there was a credibility gap in what the Johnson administration said about the war in Vietnam? The American commander in South Vietnam, General William Westmoreland, repeatedly reported that the enemy was almost defeated. Less optimistic reports were seen on television each night as the images of wounded and killed American soldiers were aired on the evening news. A Growing Credibility Gap (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. (pages 784–785)

68 Section 3-7 An Antiwar Movement Emerges Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. As the casualties increased, Americans, especially college students, began to publicly protest the war. In March 1965, faculty and students at the University of Michigan abandoned their classes and formed a teach-in where they informally discussed issues of the war and why they opposed it. This triggered teach-ins at many college campuses. (pages 785–787)

69 Section 3-8 Young protestors focused their attention on what they felt was an unfair draft system. While college students could delay military service until graduation, those with low-income and limited education were called to serve. As a result, minorities, especially African Americans, were called to war. Many draftees refused to serve. Others moved to Canada and other nations. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.) (pages 785–787)

70 Section 3-9 By 1968 the nation seemed divided into two camps–the doves and the hawks. The doves wanted the United States to withdraw from the war, and the hawks felt the United States should stay and fight. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.) (pages 785–787)

71 Section 3-10 Why did many Americans oppose the war? Some felt the conflict was a civil war in which the United States had no business. Others saw South Vietnam as corrupt, and defending the country as immoral. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. An Antiwar Movement Emerges (cont.) (pages 785–787)

72 Section : The Pivotal Year Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. On January 30, 1968, during Tet, the Vietnamese New Year, the Vietcong and North Vietnamese launched a surprise attack known as the Tet offensive. In the attack, guerrilla fighters hit American airbases in South Vietnam as well as the Souths major cities and provincial capitals. (pages 787–789)

73 Section 3-12 Militarily, the Tet offensive was a disaster for the Communists, but it was a political victory that shocked Americans. As a result, the approval rating for the president plummeted. Eugene McCarthy and Senator Robert Kennedy entered the 1968 presidential race as dove candidates for the Democratic nomination. 1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 787–789)

74 Section 3-13 Johnson withdrew from the presidential race, announcing his decision in an address to the nation on March 31, In April Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated. Two months later, Robert Kennedy was also assassinated. This violence, coupled with a clash between protesters and police at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in August, left the nation in a state of chaos. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.) (pages 787–789)

75 Section 3-14 The chaos benefited the Republican presidential candidate, Richard Nixon, and an independent, Governor George Wallace of Alabama. Nixon promised to regain order and end the war in Vietnam. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.) (pages 787–789)

76 Section 3-15 Although Johnson attempted to help the Democratic campaign with a cease-fire, Democratic presidential nominee Hubert Humphrey lost by more than 100 electoral votes as well as the popular vote by a slim margin. Richard Nixon became president. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.) (pages 787–789)

77 Section 3-16 Why is 1968 considered the most turbulent year of the chaotic 1960s? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. 1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.) (pages 787–789)

78 Section 3-16a On January 30, 1968, during Tet, the Vietnamese New Year, the Vietcong and North Vietnamese launched a surprise attack known as the Tet offensive. In the attack, guerrilla fighters hit American airbases in South Vietnam as well as the Souths major cities and provincial capitals. The approval rating for the president plummeted. Johnson withdrew from the presidential race, announcing his decision in an address to the nation on March 31, In April Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated. Two months later, Robert Kennedy was also assassinated. A clash between protesters and police at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in August added to the chaos. 1968: The Pivotal Year (cont.) (pages 787–789)

79 Section 3-17 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a person in favor of the United States withdrawing from the Vietnam War __ 2.an extended meeting or class held to discuss a social or political issue __ 3.someone who believed the United States should continue its military effort in Vietnam __ 4.lack of trust or believability A.credibility gap B.teach-in C.dove D.hawk Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. B D C A

80 Section 3-18 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Summarize three important events that occurred in Answers will vary, but could include any three of the following: Tet Offensive, Johnsons not running, Democratic National Convention, and the King and Kennedy assassinations.

81 Section 3-19 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Civic Rights and Responsibilities Why did many people believe that the Vietnam War reflected racial and economic injustices in the United States? Poorer men, including a high proportion of minorities, who were unable to afford college, were more likely to be drafted than those who could afford college.

82 Section 3-20 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Synthesizing Why did support of the Vietnam War begin to dwindle by the late 1960s? Media coverage of the mounting casualties fueled anger and distrust of government officials reports, and many were angry over the draft.

83 Section 3-21 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Study the photograph on page 786 of your textbook. The phrase flower power was a slogan of the hippie movement. Explain what you think the phrase meant to hippies and how the slogan was used to express opposition to the war. Flowers represented the growing peace movement.

84 Section 3-22 Close Describe the motives of those in the antiwar movement.

85 End of Section 3

86 Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading After nearly eight years of fighting in Vietnam, the United States withdrew its forces. Henry Kissinger Main Idea Key Terms and Names linkage Vietnamization Pentagon Papers War Powers Act

87 Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the end of the Vietnam War, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 790 of your textbook by listing the steps that President Nixon took to end American involvement in Vietnam. Explain the events of Nixons first administration that inspired more antiwar protests. Reading Objectives Summarize the major lessons the United States learned from the Vietnam War experience.

88 Section 4-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Government and Democracy The Vietnam War led to changes in the way the U.S. military is deployed.

89 Section 4-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

90 Section 4-5 Nixon Moves to End the War President Nixon chose Harvard professor Henry Kissinger to be special assistant for national security affairs, giving him authority to find a way to end the war in Vietnam. (pages 790–791) Kissinger used a policy he called linkage to improve relations with the Soviet Union and China–the suppliers of aid to North Vietnam. He started up peace talks again with North Vietnam. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

91 Section 4-6 At the same time, Nixon began Vietnamization–the gradual withdrawal of American troops in Vietnam, allowing South Vietnam to assume more of the fighting. Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.) As peace negotiations were underway, Nixon increased air strikes against North Vietnam to maintain American strength. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 790–791)

92 Section 4-8 What was Vietnamization? This was Nixons plan to gradually withdraw American troops and for South Vietnam to assume more of the fighting. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Nixon Moves to End the War (cont.) (pages 790–791)

93 In 1969 Americans learned of a 1968 event that further increased their feelings that this was a senseless war. An American platoon under the command of Lieutenant William Calley had massacred more than 200 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians in the hamlet of My Lai. Most of the victims were old men, women, and children. Section 4-9 Turmoil at Home Continues The Vietnam War continued to stir up protests and violence in the United States. (pages 791–792) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

94 Section 4-11 In April 1970, Nixon announced that American troops had invaded Cambodia to destroy Vietcong military bases. Americans viewed this as an expansion of the war, and a wave of protests followed. In 1970 Congress repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that had given the president near complete power in directing the war. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Turmoil at Home Continues (cont.) (pages 791–792)

95 Section 4-12 In 1971 a former Defense Department worker, Daniel Ellsberg, leaked what became known as the Pentagon Papers to the press. The secret document showed that many government officials had privately questioned the war while publicly defending it. The document also showed how the various administrations deceived the public about Vietnam. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Turmoil at Home Continues (cont.) (pages 791–792)

96 Section 4-13 What happened at Kent State on May 4, 1970? Ohio National Guard soldiers fired on demonstrators without orders to do so. The event left four students dead and nine others wounded. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Turmoil at Home Continues (cont.) (pages 791–792)

97 Section 4-14 The United States Pulls Out of Vietnam Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. By 1971 nearly two-thirds of Americans wanted the Vietnam War to end. President Nixon dropped the insistence that North Vietnam had to withdraw from South Vietnam before a peace treaty could be signed. A month before the presidential election, Henry Kissinger announced that peace was at hand. Nixon won re-election in a landslide. (pages 792–793)

98 Section 4-15 The United States Pulls Out of Vietnam (cont.) Peace negotiations broke down when South Vietnams president, Nguyen Van Thieu, refused any plan that left North Vietnamese troops in South Vietnam. (pages 792–793)

99 Section 4-16 On January 27, 1973, the sides agreed to end the war and restore peace in Vietnam. After eight years at war, the longest in American history, the United States ended its direct involvement in Vietnam. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The United States began a bombing campaign that eventually led to the resumption of peace talks. The United States Pulls Out of Vietnam (cont.) (pages 792–793)

100 Section 4-17 Thieu asked for United States assistance. Nixon had resigned after the Watergate scandal, and the new president, Gerald Ford, asked Congress to supply aid. Congress refused. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In March 1975, the North Vietnamese army launched a full-scale invasion of the South. The United States Pulls Out of Vietnam (cont.) (pages 792–793)

101 Section 4-18 On April 30, the North Vietnamese captured Saigon, united Vietnam under Communist rule, and renamed Saigon, Ho Chi Minh City. The United States Pulls Out of Vietnam (cont.) (pages 792–793)

102 Section 4-19 What was not resolved as the peace agreement was signed? The parties did not resolve the major issue, which was what the future of South Vietnam would be. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The United States Pulls Out of Vietnam (cont.) (pages 792–793)

103 Section 4-20 The Legacy of Vietnam Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Vietnam War had a lasting impact on the United States. The war had cost over $170 billion in direct costs and had resulted in 58,000 deaths. Many soldiers who did return home faced psychological problems, and some families were left uncertain about POWs and MIAs. (pages 793–794)

104 Section 4-21 In 1973 Congress passed the War Powers Act to reestablish limits on executive power. The act required the president to inform Congress of any commitment of troops abroad within 48 hours and to withdraw them in 60 to 90 days unless Congress approved the troop commitment. The Legacy of Vietnam (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 793–794)

105 Section 4-22 The Vietnam War increased Americans cynicism about their government and made them question their leaders. The Legacy of Vietnam (cont.) (pages 793–794)

106 Section 4-23 How did the Vietnam War impact the United States? The war had cost over $170 billion in direct costs and had resulted in 58,000 deaths. Many soldiers who did return home faced psychological problems, and some families were left uncertain about POWs and MIAs. In 1973 Congress passed the War Powers Act to reestablish limits on executive power. The Vietnam War increased Americans cynicism about their government and made them question their leaders. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Legacy of Vietnam (cont.) (pages 793–794)

107 Section 4-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Checking for Understanding __ 1.policy of improving relations with the Soviet Union and China in hopes of persuading them to cut back their aid to North Vietnam __ 2. the process of making South Vietnam assume more of the war effort by slowly withdrawing American troops from Vietnam A.linkage B.Vietnamization Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. B A

108 Section 4-25 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Describe what happened in Vietnam in 1975 after the United States withdrew. North Vietnam took control of South Vietnam, uniting the two countries under Communist rule.

109 Section 4-26 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government and Democracy Why did Congress pass the War Powers Act? How did this act reflect a struggle between the legislative and executive branches? The War Powers Act was passed to limit executive power. It reflected the struggle over checks and balances in war and foreign policy between the executive and legislative branches.

110 Section 4-27 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Why did the invasion of Cambodia cost President Nixon congressional support? Nixon failed to notify Congress of this action in advance, costing him congressional support.

111 Section 4-28 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Study the photograph of South Vietnamese citizens attempting to enter the U.S. embassy on page 793 of your textbook. How do you think this image affected American attitudes toward the war? Why do you think so? Answers will vary.

112 Section 4-29 Close Summarize the lessons of the Vietnam War.

113 End of Section 4

114 Chapter Summary 1

115 End of Chapter Summary

116 Chapter Assessment 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1.policy of improving relations with the Soviet Union and China in hopes of persuading them to cut back their aid to North Vietnam __ 2.a jellied gasoline used for bombs __ 3.armed band that carried out surprise attacks and sabotage rather then open warfare __ 4.lack of trust or believability __ 5.someone who believed the United States should continue its military efforts in Vietnam A.guerrilla B.Vietcong C.napalm D.credibility gap E.teach-in F.dove G.hawk H.linkage I.Vietnamization C A H D G

117 Chapter Assessment 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 6.an extended meeting or class held to discuss a social or political issue __ 7.the guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in Vietnam, also known as the National Liberation Front __ 8.the process of making South Vietnam assume more of the war effort by slowly withdrawing American troops from Vietnam B I E A.guerrilla B.Vietcong C.napalm D.credibility gap E.teach-in F.dove G.hawk H.linkage I.Vietnamization

118 Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 9.a person in favor of the United States withdrawing from the Vietnam War F A.guerrilla B.Vietcong C.napalm D.credibility gap E.teach-in F.dove G.hawk H.linkage I.Vietnamization

119 Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts How did President Eisenhower defend American policy in Vietnam? President Eisenhower defended involvement in Vietnam by stressing the domino theory and the need to stop the spread of communism.

120 Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) When did the number of American military personnel begin to increase in Vietnam? The number of military personnel began to increase significantly in 1963 during the Kennedy administration.

121 Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) How did Vietnamese peasants respond to the strategic hamlets program? The peasants resented being uprooted from their villages and family farms and resettled in strategic hamlets.

122 Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What actions made Ngo Dinh Diem an unpopular leader in South Vietnam? Ngo Dinh Diem was unpopular due to the strategic hamlet policy and his discrimination against Buddhism.

123 Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What was the effect of the Tet offensive on Americans? The Tet offensive began to turn American public opinion against the war. Mainstream media began to criticize the war, and Johnson decided not to run for another term as president.

124 Chapter Assessment 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Civic Rights and Responsibilities How did Americans show their frustration with the direction the country was taking in 1968? They elected Nixon, participated in violence, and protested.

125 Chapter Assessment 10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking (cont.) Analyzing How do you think the use of chemicals such as Agent Orange and napalm by the United States affected Vietnamese feelings toward Americans and the war? Since the chemicals turned farmland and forest into wasteland, it made the Vietnamese more anti-American.

126 Chapter Assessment 11 Geography and History The map below shows supply routes and troop movements during the Vietnam War. Study the map and answer the questions on the following slides.

127 Chapter Assessment 12 Interpreting Maps What nations besides North and South Vietnam were the sites of battles or invasions? Laos and Cambodia were also invaded. Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

128 Chapter Assessment 13 Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Why did the Ho Chi Minh Trail pass through Laos and Cambodia instead of South Vietnam? The Ho Chi Minh Trail passed through Laos and Cambodia to avoid discovery and capture of troops and supplies passing along the trail.

129 Chapter Assessment 14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the phrase that best completes the following statement. The purpose of the War Powers Act was to ensure that the president would Ahave greater authority over the military. Bconsult Congress before committing troops to extended conflicts. Chave the authority to sign treaties without Senate approval. Dhave a freer hand in fighting the spread of communism. Test-Taking Tip After Vietnam and Watergate, Congress wanted legislation to limit the presidents power during wartime. Three of the answers actually do the opposite, giving the president more power. You can eliminate these three answers.

130 Chapter Assessment 15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What is the name of the university in Ohio where four students were killed by National Guard troops? The name of this university is Kent State University.

131 End of Chapter Assessment

132 F/F/F 1-Fact The Peace Symbol This familiar symbol of the 1960s was originally designed to stand for the fight for nuclear disarmament. Created by British artist Gerald Holtom in 1958, the symbol was first used at a British demonstration against a research center for the development of nuclear weapons. It combined the semaphore for the letters N and D, standing for nuclear disarmament. Semaphore is a system of visual signaling using two flags, one held in each hand. N is two flags held in an upside–down V, and D is one flag pointed straight up and the other pointed straight down. In the early 1970s another sign of the growing concern over the Vietnam War was the proliferation of POW/MIA bracelets. Each bracelet was engraved with the name of someone who was a prisoner of war or missing in action. Most people who wore the bracelets continued to wear them until they learned the fate of the person named on their bracelet. As the war ended and service personnel came home, the bracelets were sent to the returning veterans, or, in many cases, the veterans family.

133 FYI 3-1 The Tet offensive caught the United States military completely off guard. In the words of a West Point textbook published after the war, Tet was an intelligence failure ranking with Pearl Harbor.

134 FYI 4-1 Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) proclaimed 1990 its Year of Tourism. The tunnels once used for the Vietcong guerrillas–a network of 200 miles–were one of the featured tourist attractions.

135 Moment in History 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

136 You Dont Say 2-1 Helicopters GI slang referred to helicopters as TWA–teenie-weenie airlines. They were used on a massive scale during the Vietnam War. With gas turbines replacing piston engines, the helicopters had remarkable range and maneuverability.

137 SS Skill Builder 1 Conducting an Interview Suppose that your friends went to see a concert, but you were unable to attend. How would you find out how the show was? Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

138 SS Skill Builder 2 Learning the Skill You probably would not normally think of asking your friends questions about a concert as conducting an interview, but that is exactly what you are doing. Interviews are an excellent way of collecting important facts and opinions from people. Interviews allow you to gather information from people who witnessed or participated in an event firsthand. For example, William Prochnau interviewed many different people and used the results to write his book Once Upon a Distant War, which examines the way the press covered the Vietnam War. To conduct an interview with someone, follow the steps on the following slides. Conducting an Interview

139 SS Skill Builder 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Learning the Skill (cont.) Make an appointment. Contact the person and explain why you want to conduct the interview, what kinds of things you hope to learn, and how you will use the information. Discuss where and when you will conduct the interview, and ask if you may use a tape recorder. Gather background information. Find out about the education, career, and other accomplishments of the person you want to interview. Research the topics you wish to discuss. Conducting an Interview

140 SS Skill Builder 4 Prepare questions. Group questions into subject categories. Begin each category with general questions and move toward more specific questions. Formulate each question carefully. If the answer could be simply yes or no, rephrase the question. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Conducting an Interview Conduct the interview. Introduce yourself and restate the purpose of the interview. Ask questions and record responses accurately. Ask follow-up questions to fill gaps in information. Learning the Skill (cont.)

141 SS Skill Builder 5 Transcribe the interview. Convert your written or tape-recorded notes into a transcript, a written record of the interview presented in a question- and-answer format. Conducting an Interview Learning the Skill (cont.)

142 SS Skill Builder 6 Practicing the Skill Imagine you are assigned to interview someone who participated in or is old enough to remember the events that occurred during the Vietnam War. Conducting an Interview

143 1.What kind of background information might you gather? 2.What are some broad categories of questions you might ask based on what you know about the person you are interviewing and what you know about the war? SS Skill Builder 7 Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Conducting an Interview Answers will vary. Practicing the Skill (cont.)

144 SS Skill Builder 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. 3.What are some general questions you might want to ask within these broad categories? Consider the responses you might get to these general questions, and formulate follow-up questions for each. Answers will vary. Conducting an Interview Practicing the Skill (cont.)

145 M/C 1-1

146 M/C 2-1

147 M/C 2 contents The Tet Offensive Opposition to the Vietnam War Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.

148 M/C 2-1a

149 M/C 2-2a

150 M/C 2-4

151 Why It Matters Transparency

152 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

153 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

154 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

155 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

156 GO 1

157 GO 2

158 GO 3

159 GO 4

160 HELP To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen. Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio. Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Maps and Chart button in the top right corner of many slides to link to relevant In-Motion and static maps and charts. Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, History Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature.

161 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

162 End of Slide Show


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