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1 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The United States in the International Economy Tariff A tax imposed by a government.

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Presentation on theme: "1 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The United States in the International Economy Tariff A tax imposed by a government."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The United States in the International Economy Tariff A tax imposed by a government on imports. Imports Goods and services bought domestically but produced in other countries. Exports Goods and services produced domestically but sold in other countries. Quota A numerical limit a government imposes on the quantity of a good that can be imported into the country.

2 2 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The Importance of Trade to the U.S. Economy Figure 9.1 International Trade Is of Increasing Importance to the United States Exports and imports of goods and services as a percentage of total productionmeasured by GDPshow the importance of international trade to an economy. Since 1970, both imports and exports have been steadily rising as a fraction of U.S. GDP.

3 The United States in the International Economy The Eight Leading Exporting Countries 2008 U.S. International Trade in a World Context

4 4 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 9.3 International Trade as a Percentage of GDP International trade is still less important to the United States than to most other countries.

5 5 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Caterpillar has become increasingly dependent on foreign markets, with its firms exports rising from just over half of total sales in 2004 to more than two-thirds in How Caterpillar Depends on International Trade Making the Connection

6 6 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall A Brief Review of Comparative Advantage Comparative advantage The ability of an individual, a firm, or a country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than competitors. Opportunity cost The highest-valued alternative that must be given up to engage in an activity. Absolute advantage The ability to produce more of a good or service than competitors when using the same amount of resources. Autarky A situation in which a country does not trade with other countries. Terms of trade The ratio at which a country can trade its exports for imports from other countries. Countries gain from specializing in producing goods in which they have a comparative advantage and trading for goods in which other countries have a comparative advantage.

7 7 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Comparative Advantage in International Trade Output per Hour of Work Cell PhonesTablet Computers Japan126 United States24 Opportunity Costs Cell PhonesTablet Computers Japan 0.5 tablet computer2 cell phones United States2 tablet computers0.5 cell phone

8 8 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Table 9.4 Gains from Trade for Japan and the United States

9 9 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The Gains from Trade David Ricardo provided a famous example of the gains from trade, using wine and cloth production in Portugal and England. Output per Year of Labor ClothWine Portugal England9060 Determining which country has an absolute advantage. Portugal can produce more cloth and more wine with one years worth of labor than can England. Portugal has an absolute advantage in the production of both goods. Determining which country has a comparative advantage. To produce 100 sheets of cloth, Portugal gives up 150 kegs of wine. Its opportunity cost of 1 sheet of cloth is 150/100 = 1.5 kegs of wine. England gives up 60 kegs of wine to produce 90 sheets of cloth. Its opportunity cost of 1 sheet of cloth is 60/90 = 0.67 keg of wine. Opportunity Costs ClothWine Portugal1.5 kegs of wine0.67 sheet of cloth England0.67 keg of wine1.5 sheets of cloth Portugal has a comparative advantage in wine because its opportunity cost is lower. England has a comparative advantage in cloth because its opportunity cost is lower.

10 10 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The Gains from Trade Show that both countries benefit from trade. Without Trade (Given) Production and Consumption ClothWine Portugal England 18,000 63, ,000 18,000 With Trade, Countries Specialize, Terms of trade given Production with TradeTerms of Trade Consumption with Trade ClothWineClothWineClothWine Portugal0150,000Import 18,000Export 18,00018,000132,000 England90,0000Export 18,000Import 18,00072,00018,000 Gains from Trade Increased Consumption Portugal England 9,000 wine 9,000 cloth

11 11 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Why Dont We See Complete Specialization? We do not see complete specialization in the real world for three main reasons: Not all goods and services are traded internationally. Some services are difficult to export, such as medical care. Production of most goods involves increasing opportunity costs. If a country devotes more workers to producing a good, the opportunity cost of producing more of that good will increase, causing the country to stop short of complete specialization. Tastes for products differ. Most products are differentiated. As a result, countries may each have a comparative advantage in producing different varieties of a particular product. Countries do not produce goodsfirms do, and some lose. The losers are likely to try to convince their governments to interfere by barring imports of the competing products from the other country or by imposing high tariffs on them. Does Anyone Lose as a Result of International Trade?

12 12 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Where Does Comparative Advantage Come From? Among the main sources of comparative advantage are the following: Climate and natural resources. Geology can create comparative advantage. Relative abundance of labor and capital. Some countries have a comparative advantage in producing goods requiring highly skilled workers and sophisticated machinery, while others have a comparative advantage requiring unskilled workers and relatively simple machinery. Technology. Broadly defined, technology is the process firms use to turn inputs into goods and services. Some countries are strong in product technologies, which involve the ability to develop new products. Other countries are strong in process technologies, which involve the ability to improve the processes used to make existing products. External economies. Once an industry becomes established in an area, firms that locate in that area gain advantages over firms located elsewhere. External economies Reductions in a firms costs that result from an increase in the size of an industry.

13 13 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The original concentration of financial firms in Manhattan was something of a historical accident, thanks to the Erie Canal. New York has since continued to see a high concentration of financial firms, with some firms that temporarily left deciding to return because of the benefits they receive from the external economies of being located in New York City. Large financial firms located outside Manhattan, particularly those that heavily trade securities or attempt to make deals that involve mergers between firms, may have higher costs than firms located in Manhattan. Having many financial firms originally located in Manhattan was a historical accident, but external economies gave the area a comparative advantage in providing financial services once the industry began to grow there. Leave New York City? Risky for Financial Firms Making the Connection

14 14 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Comparative Advantage over Time: The Rise and Falland Rise of the U.S. Consumer Electronics Industry A country may develop a comparative advantage in the production of a good, then as time passes and circumstances change, the country may lose its comparative advantage in that good and develop a comparative advantage in producing other goods. For several decades, the United States had a comparative advantage in the production of consumer electronic goods, such as televisions and radios. The comparative advantage was based on developing the underlying technology, having the most modern factories, and having a skilled and experienced workforce. Gradually other countries, particularly Japan, gained access to the technology, built modern factories, and developed skilled workforces during the 1970s. By 2011, however, as the technology underlying consumer electronics evolved, comparative advantage shifted again, and several U.S. firms surged ahead of their Japanese competitors. Once a country has lost its comparative advantage in producing a good, its income will be higher and its economy will be more efficient if it switches from producing the good to importing it, as the United States did when it switched from producing televisions to importing them.

15 15 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Free trade Trade between countries that is without government restrictions. Figure 9.4 The U.S. Market for Ethanol under Autarky This figure shows the market for ethanol in the United States, assuming autarky, where the United States does not trade with other countries. The equilibrium price of ethanol is $2.00 per gallon, and the equilibrium quantity is 6.0 billion gallons per year. The blue area represents consumer surplus, and the red area represents producer surplus.

16 16 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 9.5 The Effect of Imports on the U.S. Ethanol Market When imports are allowed into the United States, the price of ethanol falls from $2.00 to $1.00. U.S. consumers increase their purchases from 6.0 billion to 9.0 billion gallons. Equilibrium moves from point F to point G. U.S. producers reduce the quantity of ethanol they supply from 6.0 billion to 3.0 billion gallons. Imports equal 6.0 billion gallons, which is the difference between U.S. consumption and U.S. production. Consumer surplus equals the areas A, B, C, and D. Producer surplus equals the area E. Government policies that restrict trade usually take one of two forms: tariffs or quotas and voluntary export restraints.

17 17 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 9.6 The Effects of a Tariff on Ethanol Without a tariff on ethanol, U.S. producers will sell 3.0 billion gallons of ethanol, U.S. consumers will purchase 9.0 billion gallons, and imports will be 6.0 billion gallons. The U.S. price will equal the world price of $1.00 per gallon. The $0.50-per-gallon tariff raises the price of ethanol in the United States to $1.50 per gallon, and U.S. producers increase the quantity they supply to 4.5 billion gallons. U.S. consumers reduce their purchases to 7.5 billion gallons. Tariffs Equilibrium moves from point G to point H. The ethanol tariff causes a loss of consumer surplus equal to the area A + C + T + D. The area A is the increase in producer surplus due to the higher price. The area T is the governments tariff revenue. The areas C and D represent deadweight loss.

18 18 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints Quota A numerical limit a government imposes on the quantity of a good that can be imported into the country. Voluntary export restraint (VER) An agreement negotiated between two countries that places a numerical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported by one country from the other country. Measuring the Economic Effect of the Sugar Quota We can use the concepts of consumer surplus, producer surplus, and deadweight loss to measure the economic impact of the sugar quota.

19 19 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 9.7 The Economic Effect of the U.S. Sugar Quota Without a sugar quota, U.S. sugar producers would have sold 4.7 billion pounds of sugar, U.S. consumers would have purchased 27.5 billion pounds of sugar, and imports would have been 22.8 billion pounds. The U.S. price would have equaled the world price of $0.28 per pound. Because the sugar quota limits imports to 5.3 billion pounds (the bracket in the graph), the price of sugar in the United States rises to $0.53 per pound, and U.S. producers supply 15.9 billion pounds. U.S. consumers purchase 21.2 billion pounds rather than the 27.5 billion pounds they would purchase at the world price. Without the import quota, equilibrium would be at point E; with the quota, equilibrium is at point F. The sugar quota causes a loss of consumer surplus equal to the area A + B + C + D. The area A is the gain to U.S. sugar producers. The area B is the gain to foreign sugar producers. The areas C and D represent deadweight loss. The total loss to U.S. consumers in 2010 was $6.08 billion.

20 20 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The High Cost of Preserving Jobs with Tariffs and Quotas Product Number of Jobs Saved Cost to Consumers per Year for Each Job Saved Benzenoid chemicals Luggage Softwood lumber Dairy products Frozen orange juice Ball bearings Machine tools Women's handbags Canned tuna , , $1,376,435 1,285,078 1,044, , , , , , ,640 Table 9.5 Preserving U.S. Jobs with Tariffs and Quotas Is Expensive

21 21 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Table 9.6 Preserving Japanese Jobs with Tariffs and Quotas Is Also Expensive Product Cost to Consumers per Year for Each Job Saved Rice Natural gas Gasoline Paper Beef, pork, and poultry Cosmetics Radio and television sets $51,233,000 27,987,000 6,329,000 3,813,000 1,933,000 1,778, ,000

22 22 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Save Jobs Making Hangers... and Lose Jobs in Dry Cleaning Making the Connection A tariff on hangers increased the cost of doing business for U.S. dry cleaners. Under trade agreements signed with other countries, the United States is allowed to impose tariffs on imports if foreign firms are selling products in the United States at below their production cost. The U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) determined that Chinese firms had, in fact, been selling wire garment hangers in the United States at below the firms production cost and so imposed a tariff on imports of the hangers. The tariff sharply increased dry cleaners costs as many struggled to pay their workers, let alone stay in business. As dry cleaners, their employees, and consumers buying wire hangers found out, tariffs can be both an expensive and ineffective way to attempt to preserve jobs.

23 Government Policies That Restrict International Trade Gains from Unilateral Elimination of Tariffs and Quotas Some politicians argue that eliminating U.S. tariffs and quotas would help the U.S. economy only if other countries eliminated their tariffs and quotas in exchange. But as the example of the sugar quota shows, the U.S. economy gains from the elimination of tariffs and quotas even if other countries do not reduce their tariffs and quotas.

24 Learning Objective 8.5 The Argument over Trade Policies and Globalization World Trade Organization (WTO) An international organization that oversees international trade agreements. Why Do Some People Oppose the World Trade Organization? Globalization The process of countries becoming more open to foreign trade and investment. Anti-Globalization Some people believe that free trade and foreign investment destroy the distinctive cultures of many countries. Many governments have resisted globalization proposals.

25 25 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Would eliminating child labor, such as stitching soccer balls, improve the quality of childrens lives? The Unintended Consequences of Banning Goods Made with Child Labor Making the Connection In the United States, boycotts have been organized against stores that stock goods made in developing countries with child labor. Many people assume that if child workers in developing countries werent working in factories, they would be in school, as are children in high-income countries. In fact, there is substantial evidence that as incomes begin to rise in poor countries, families rely less on child labor, which the United States didnt outlaw until Meanwhile, children in developing countries usually have few good alternatives to work: When France banned soccer balls made by child workers for the 1998 World Cup, many Pakistani children went from hand-stitching in a structured environment to begging or prostitution.

26 26 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Protectionism The use of trade barriers to shield domestic firms from foreign competition. Old-Fashioned Protectionism Saving jobs. Supporters of protectionism argue that free trade reduces employment by driving domestic firms out of business. Protecting high wages. Some people worry that firms in high-income countries will have to start paying much lower wages to compete with firms in developing countries. Protecting infant industries. Others argue that under free trade, established foreign producers can sell their products at a lower price and drive domestic producers out of business before they gain enough experience to compete. Protecting national security. It is rare for an industry to ask for protection without raising the issue of national security, even if its products have mainly nonmilitary uses. Protectionism is usually justified on the basis of one of the following arguments:

27 Has NAFTA Helped or Hurt the U.S. Economy? Making the Connection Despite resistance to NAFTA, time proved that the U.S. economy gained jobs.

28 28 of 43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Positive analysis concerns what is. Normative analysis concerns what ought to be. The success of industries in getting the government to erect barriers to foreign competition depends partly on some members of the public knowing the costs of trade barriers but supporting them anyway. However, two other factors are also at work: Positive versus Normative Analysis (Once Again) 1.The costs tariffs and quotas impose on consumers are large in total but relatively small per person. 2.The jobs lost to foreign competition are easier to identify than are the jobs created by foreign trade.


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