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Pre and Postharvest Management of Aflatoxin Contamination in Groundnut F Waliyar, B R Natre, A Traoré, B Diarra, O Kodio and P Lava Kumar International.

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Presentation on theme: "Pre and Postharvest Management of Aflatoxin Contamination in Groundnut F Waliyar, B R Natre, A Traoré, B Diarra, O Kodio and P Lava Kumar International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pre and Postharvest Management of Aflatoxin Contamination in Groundnut F Waliyar, B R Natre, A Traoré, B Diarra, O Kodio and P Lava Kumar International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Institut d'Economie Rurale (IER), Mali ICRISATwww.aflatoxin.info ICRISAT

2 Groundnut Groundnut / Peanut (Arachis hypogea) Major oilseed crop in the tropical and semi-tropical parts of the world -Major producers are India, China and the USA -Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Argentina -Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Argentina Developing countries account for 95% global production -70% in Asia, 23% in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) -West Central Africa (WCA) accounts for 78% of total SSA production About 95% of the groundnut produced serves subsistence needs and domestic markets

3 Important in small-holder agriculture, grown mostly under subsistence conditions A major source of income especially for women Increasing shift towards edible groundnut (food purpose) (209% increase in West Africa during the past 3 decades) Source of: Digestible protein (24-34%) Fat (44-56%) Carbohydrate (11-27%) Vitamins Meal and Fodder Nitrogen fixation (60 kg/ha) Importance of Groundnut

4 Aflatoxins are produced by A. flavus / A. parasiticus Grows over a wide range of temperature (between 10-40°C) Thrives at high relative humidity and kernel moisture content (10 to 30%) Aflatoxins in Groundnut

5 Can occur at all stages: pre-harvest, harvest, and storage Accumulates in seeds Deteriorate quality Barrier to international trade Cause serious health risks of various kinds, accounting for several deaths in Africa Aflatoxins in Groundnut Aflatoxincontamination Liver cancer & other diseases Trade restriction Enhances HIV/AIDS Malnutrition

6 Status in Africa Endemic problem especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), - Due to frequent droughts and cultivation under subsistence conditions Pre-harvest contamination is the major source: -End-of-season drought; mechanical damage to pods; poor harvesting and storage methods High contamination in seeds -Reduction in exports by 19% during past 2-decades Lack of awareness and monitoring facilities -For most countries specific aflatoxin regulations do not exist -Regulations will have limited effect on health protection, as groundnut produced is mainly consumed by the producers themselves No regulations Regulations in place No information available FAO, 2004

7 Predisposing Factors Drought stress Weather conditions during pod maturation and during drying Time of harvest Method of harvest/drying Time of pod removal Insects damage Storage conditions

8 Aflatoxin Management Strategies Resistance Conventional, Transgenics Harvesting and Postharvest Drying, Threshers, Storages Bio-control agents Trichoderma Pseudomonades Agronomic and Cultural practices Soil amendments (lime, farmyard manure, crop residues, etc) Pre and Posharvest Aflatoxin management

9 Strategy for Aflatoxin Management in SSA Reduce aflatoxin contamination to improve health and incomes of groundnut farmers and consumers Promote pre and post-harvest technologies that minimize aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts Information dissemination Awareness campaigns Participatory varietal selection of tolerant varieties Participatory evaluation of cultural practices to reduce aflatoxin contamination Demonstration of best-bet harvest and drying techniques Training for technology dissemination

10 Conventional resistance Source of resistance available Low level of resistance Breeding lines developed Some have been tested in Asia and Africa High yielding lines identified Difficulties Screening Variability (field) (i) Resistance Transgenic resistance Incorporation of anti-fungal genes (Chitinase) in elite varieties (cv. JL24) T1 generation plants being evaluated for resistance.

11 The main objective is to reduce effect of drought at the end of cropping season Farmyard manure Calcium (as lime/gypsum applications) Cereal Crop Residues Density Planting date etc., (ii) Agronomic and Cultural Practices

12 (iii) Soil Amendments to Mitigate Aflatoxin Contamination On station experiments conducted at Sadore, Niger and Samanko, Mali, during Soil amendments with lime (2.5 t hat -1), farmyard manure (10 t ha -1 ) and cereal crop residues (5 t ha -1 ) applied at sowing or 50 days after sowing, either individually or combinations of these three (12 treatments). Three cultivars used: Two resistant cultivars, J11 and ; and a susceptible cultivar Fleur 11

13 Aflatoxin Concentration (ppb) in Groundnut Seeds from Various Treatments *Three year average F = Farmyard manure R = crop residues L = Lime 1 = Application at sowing 2 = Application at 50 days after sowing Resistant cvs and J11 Susceptible cv. Fleur 11

14 Aflatoxin Concentration (ppb) in Groundnut Seeds from Various Treatment Combinations *Three year average F = Farmyard manure R = crop residues L = Lime 1 = Application at sowing 2 = Application at 50 days after sowing Resistant cvs and J11 Susceptible cv. Fleur 11

15 Promising Soil Amendments for Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination in Groundnut Samanko, Mali Sadore, Niger L1 R1 L1 F1 L1 F1 R1 L1 F1 R1 L2 F1 R2 L1 F1 R2 L2 Control Aflatoxins (ppb)* F = Farmyard manure R = Cereal crop residues L = Lime 1 = Application at sowing 2 = Application at 50 days after sowing *Three year average Average from 3 years on-station trials ( ) Groundnut cv. Fleur 11 (Highly susceptible to aflatoxin) 25

16 A resistant (55-437) and a susceptible (JL 24) cvs used in the study Demonstrations in farmers in Kolokani and Kayes; on-station 400 kg ha -1 lime applied at 50 days after sowing 2.5 t of Crop residues and farmyard manure at planting and 50 days after sowing Effect of Lime, Crop Residues and Farmyard Manure in Farmers Fields

17 Aflatoxin Content Under Various Agronomic Practices in Kayes (Mali) Treatment Aflatoxin content (ppb) (Resistant cv.) JL24 (Susceptible cv.) Lime t ha -1 F t ha -1 R Lime +R F + R Control SE1.564 F = Farmyard manure R = Crop residues

18 Aflatoxin Content Under Various Agronomic Practices in Kolokani Treatment Aflatoxin content (ppb) JL24 Lime 50 days after planting t ha -1 F t ha -1 R Lime +CR F + R Control SE1.22 FYM = Farmyard manure CR = Crop residues

19 Method of Harvesting and Drying Demonstration in farmers in Kolokani and Keyes, Mali Drying pods facing the sun Traditional Field Drying Improved Batch Drying (Pods facing the sun)

20 Effect of Method of Drying on Aflatoxin Content - Kolokani Farmer cv cv Traditional*Improved*Traditional*Improved* Bagui Mory Seba Demaba *parts per billion

21 Kayes Effect of Method of Drying on Aflatoxin Content - Kayes Farmer cv cv TraditionalImproved (Percent reduction) TraditionalImproved Savado (63) (70) Coumb (77) (74) Kande (79) (68) Seydou (95) (84) Yaya (62) (63) *parts per billion

22 Effect of Time of Pod Removal on Aflatoxin Content Lifting at maturity Remove pods immediately After 1 week After 2 weeks Usual farmers practice (when ready)

23 Time of Pod Removal After Uprooting Treatment Aflatoxin content (ppb) Resistant cultivarsSusceptible cultivars J11JL24 Fleur 11 0 weeks Week weeks Farmer Gleans

24 Increase in Aflatoxin Concentration During Storages in the Farmers Fields Village Aflatoxin content (ppb) At harvest 1 month in storage 2 months in storage Bamba (5) Gouak (5) Kolokani (5) Sido (5)

25 Increased awareness among farmers of the value of modern varieties and have responded by being directly involved in variety selection and seed production Farmers awareness of the needs of processors and consumers who in turn recognize the value of improved quality Imparting Awareness

26 Information Dissemination Pathways Use of farmer trial and demonstration plots through farmer-to farmer visits End of season meetings Brochures and flyers (Fr and local languages) Television and radio debates

27 Future Outlook Risk assessment of mycotoxins in other crops in addition to groundnut Assess the impact of mycotoxins on human health and socio- economic conditions of people in marginal farming systems Increase public awareness on the risks of mycotoxins Develop and implement quality control methods and safety standards Develop and/or promote technologies to produce mycotoxin free products Study the impact of aflatoxin contaminated food on HIV/AIDS patients

28 ICRISAT


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