Presentation on theme: "ENHANCEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF CIVIL SERVICE – POLISH EXPERIENCE Professor Jacek Czaputowicz Director of the National School of Public Administration (KSAP)"— Presentation transcript:
ENHANCEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF CIVIL SERVICE – POLISH EXPERIENCE Professor Jacek Czaputowicz Director of the National School of Public Administration (KSAP) in Poland
Content of the Presentation Trends in public administration Historical background Characteristics of the Polish system of civil service Forces behind reform, successes & failures
Pressure on state European Union State Transitional Local and regional authorities globalisation integration fragmentation Organisations
Factors & effects Budget constraints Growing expectations from the public Pressure for greater efficiency Fall in unemployment => Lower spending on administration => Service orientation, improved quality standards => Payment and appraisal by performance => Tighter competition and the labour market
Trends in Public Administration A need for the whole government approach Tension between the long-term and short-term perspectives Strengthening the civil service
Historical background of the Civil Service Under the communist regime: - No clear legal rules concerning the system of civil service, recruitment, promotion and training - Nomenklatura – system - Arbitrary decision in different sectors of public administration - Demonstration of political loyalty - No clear decision concerning recruitment
Civil Service in Poland after 1989 Creation of professional and politically neutral civil service - 1989 – 1995 – economic and political reforms in Eastern Europe; opposition allowed to the civil service Three stages of the transition period: - 1996 – 1997 – the Civil Service Act (5th July 1995 and 18th December 1998) enters into force; division into political and politically neutral posts and contract employment versus nomination, managerial posts filled by way of competition. - The 2006 Act – introduction of the National Personnel Reserve. - The 2008 Act – internal promotion as means of filling higher posts., reinstatement of the position of Head of the Civil Service.
Employment in the Polish Civil Service System according to gender as of 31st Dec 2011 Group of InstitutionsPercentage of women employed Percentage of men employed Ministries65,0 %35,0 % State Institutions58,1 %41,9 % Regional Institutions72,4 %27,6 % Administration of Voivodships 69,0 %31,0 % Administrations in Districts 75,0%25,0 % Institutions Aborad32,3%67,7 % Total75,2 %24,8 %
Constitution of the RP Article 153 1. A corps of civil servants shall operate in the organs of government administration in order to ensure a professional, reliable, impartial and politically neutral discharge of States obligations. 1. A corps of civil servants shall operate in the organs of government administration in order to ensure a professional, reliable, impartial and politically neutral discharge of States obligations. 2.The Prime Minister shall be the superior of such corps of civil servants.
Civil Service corps members - rights and duties Civil Service corps members - rights and duties Ban on the public manifest of political beliefs Ban on participating in strikes and actions of protest, which interfere with functioning of the office Ban on performing functions within trade unions Ban on establishment or participating in political parties Ban on combining employment in CS with self-government councillors status civil service employee civil servant
Career & position model Career system Position system France Poland The Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Estonia New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, Romania, Great Britain Bulgaria
Civil service systems Traditional models: career and position, do not reflect reality Individualisation: to which extent rules and practices apply to an individual, not to the group Delegation/ fragmentation: level on which strategic decisions are taken (central, ministerial or lower)
Delegation and individualisation approaches to HR practices
Civil service models according to individualization and delegation/fragmentation criteria Source: own study. Position-based model (Great Britain, Australia) Department-based model (Poland) Career-based model (France) Centralized, performance- related model (the United States) Delegation/ fragmentation Individualization
Department-based Model Niska mobilnosc horyzontalna Zroznicowanie pensji w ministerstwach (porownanie ministerstwa kultury i finansow)
Challeges and difficulties Change of mentality and habits Lack of sufficient financial resources High influence of political pressure groups particularly in local administration Fragmentation of Public Administration – a need for the whole government approach Tension between the long-term and short-term perspectives Strengthening the civil service & ethical behaviour
18 Challenges for Training in Poland PA programmes are within faculties of Law and Administration Programs are law oriented, not management oriented Not to petrify traditional model of bureacracy Unlearning of old values and behaviour and learning new set of values and behaviour
Subject of Training: Skills, not academic knowledge Managerial skills, coordination, cooperation, consensus building Ledership, leading others, taking risks, achieving results, organisational goals, how to implement change Written and oral communication, how to write governmental papers Teamwork, persuade others, inclusiveness, not individual interests Maintaining core values, client/citizen orientation, focus on weak part of society, ethics, empathy
Employment in public administration in Poland 1999200020052006200720082009 Public administration (overall) 307315.3367.7371379.8387.7428.3 Governmental and state administration 148135.8164.6164.2165.5166.7182.7 Administration on other tiers 159178.7202.2206.0213.5220.1244.7 % share of employment in on non-central tiers 525655 5657
Accountability, Corruption and Political Neutrality 200520062007200820092010 Ranking7061 584941 Index126.96.36.199,65,05,3 No. of states 159163180 178
The Role of the Civil Servants in the Presidency The challenges of the Polish public administration: - efficiency of action, - system for information exchange and the circulation of documents, - transparency of public administration, - a professional policymaking process.
Female employment in civil service – country comparison