Presentation on theme: "Service Environment, Physical Evidence and the Servicescape"— Presentation transcript:
1Service Environment, Physical Evidence and the Servicescape Chapter 10Service Environment, Physical Evidence and the Servicescape
2What is the Service Environment? The service environment includes all aspects of the organization’s physical facility (servicescape) as well as other tangible aspects of tangible communication.The service environment is used as a criteria in evaluating services by consumers.Effective design of physical, tangible evidence is a requirement for successful services.Servicescape is often used as a positioning tool for service organizations.
4Purpose of Service Environments Shape customers’ experience and their behaviourMessage-creating medium: symbolic cues to communicate the distinctive nature and quality of the service experienceAttention-creating medium: make servicescape stand out from competition and attract customers from target segmentsEffect-creating medium: use colors, textures, sounds, scents and spatial design to enhance desired service experienceFor image, positioning and differentiationPart of the value propositionFacilitate service encounter and enhance productivity
7Framework for Understanding Environment-User Relationships Framework proposes that dimensions of the servicescape will impact customer and employee behaviour.Behaviour and actions will be dependent on their reactions to the overall servicescape.Certain dimensions may be more important for certain consumers and service providers.Framework is better suited for services that also have a tangible component.
9An Integrative Framework: Bitner’s Servicescape Model Identifies the main dimensions in a service environment (servicescape)Ambient conditionsSpace/functionalitySigns, symbols and artifactsPeople perceive them as a wholeKey to effective design is how well each individual dimension fits together with everything elseInternal customer and employee responses can be categorized into cognitive, emotional and physiological responses, which lead to observable behavioral responses towards the environment
10Service Environment: Ambient Conditions Ambient environment is composed of hundreds of design elements and details that must work together to create desired service environmentAmbient conditions are perceived both separately and holistically, and include:Sounds such as noise and musicScentsLighting and color schemesSize and shapesAir quality and temperature
11Service Environment: Impact of Music In service settings, music can have powerful effect on perceptions and behaviors, even if played at barely audible levelsStructural characteristics of music ― such as tempo, volume, and harmony ― are perceived holisticallyFast tempo music and high volume music increase arousal levelsPeople tend to adjust their pace, either voluntarily or involuntarily, to match tempo of music
12Service Environment: Impact of Scents An ambient smell is one that pervades an environmentScents have distinct characteristics and can be used to obtain emotional, physiological, and behavioral responsesIn service settings, research has shown that scents can have significant effect on customer perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours – e.g., movie theater, bakery
13Service Environment: Impact of Colour Colours can have a strong impact on people’s feelingsWarm colors encourage fast decision making and are good for low-involvement decisions or impulse buysCool colors are preferred for high-involvement decisions
14Service Environment: Human Associations to Colour
15Service Environment: Spatial Layout and Functionality Floorplan;Size and shape of furnishings, counters, machinery, equipment, and how they are arrangedFunctionality: ability of those items to make the performance of the service easier
16Service Environment: Signs, Symbols and Artifacts Communicates the firm’s imageHelp customers fine their wayLet customers know the service scriptFirst time customers will automatically try to draw meaning from the signs, symbols and artifactsChallenge is to design such that these guide customer through the service delivery processUnclear signals from a servicescape can result in anxiety and uncertainty about how to proceed and obtain the desired service
17Service Environment: People Appearance and behaviour of both service personnel and customers can strengthen impression created by service environment or weaken itFor employees, once they are dressed up, they must perform their partsFor customers, marketing communication may seek to attract those who appreciate the service environment and are also able to enhance it by their appearance and behaviourIn hospitality and retail settings, newcomers often look at existing customers before deciding whether to patronize the service firm