Presentation on theme: "Engaging Citizens to Counter Corruption for Better Public Service Delivery and Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals Session 2 Engaging citizens."— Presentation transcript:
Engaging Citizens to Counter Corruption for Better Public Service Delivery and Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals Session 2 Engaging citizens to counter corruption: scope of analysis and rationale Enrique Peruzzotti Di Tella University and CONICET - Argentina
Dimensions of the concept of accountability. ANSWERABILITY obligation of public officials to inform about their activities and justify their decisions ENFORCEMENT The authority to impose sanctions to those public officials who have violated the law or who have not fulfilled their obligations or to rectify policies TRANSPARENCY access to relevant and reliable information
Traditional approach: arenas and agents of accountability Horizontal mechanisms Executive Legislative Judiciary Auditors Comptroller General Prosecutor General I Elections Vertical Mechanisms Civil Society Media Individual Citizens Public Sphere
New developments: creation of new agencies & mechanisms and emergence of social accountability politics. Anticorruption agencies Ombudsman Human Rights Commissions Social policy councils Participatory Budgeting Participatory urban planning Score cards New constitutional mechanisms for rights protection Citizen complaint mechanisms Citizen Audits Supply Side Creation of new agencies & mechanisms Social watchdogs organizations (budgets, public works, corruption, human rights, environment, corruption, etc.) Watchdog and investigative journalism (media exposes of governmental wrongdoing) Victims movements of illegal encroachments by the state Public interest litigation and lobbying Right to information movements Grass roots movements demanding access to public services Demand side Social accountability politics
New developments in democratic accountability Executive Legislative Judiciary Auditors Ombudsman Comptroller General HR Commissions Prosecutor General Anti-corruption agencies I Civil Society Media Individual Citizens Right to information campaigns Exposes of corruption & illegal encroachments Citizen Complaint Systems & Score Cards Policy Councils Articulated Oversight Judicialization Lobbying Social accountability politics
Public strategies to enhance accountability and challenge corruption in the provision of public services Bad policies prevent efficient or equitable distribution of public services Corruption (abuse of entrusted power for private gain) Poorly designed/implemented public policies Accountability not just as mechanisms for preventing/ sanctioning wrongdoing (logic of procedures) but also mechanisms to improve information, deliberation to enhance the quality of public policies or service delivery (logic of consequence)
Enhancing Accountability in Public Service Provision. Accountability In Public Services Control of procedures Influence outcomes Development of different sort of top down and bottom up oversight mechanisms to prevent corruption More, direct, public and inclusive inter- phases between service providers, citizens and public officials
Citizen participation and governmental accountability Citizen Engagement To enhance the responsiveness and effectiveness of service providers To expand the system of formal oversight agencies to prevent corruption and other forms of official wrongdoing
Transparency The provision of information is not enough: it also matters the quality of such information Opaque transparency policies Disclosure of irrelevant data Information presented in a format that makes it difficult for ordinary citizens to comprehend it Disclosure of unreliable data Information Politics Generation of alternative and independent sources of information Filling out information deficits or challenging official data Translation and dissemination Right to Access to Information Initiatives Improving signaling systems
Citizen struggles for right to information in India. National campaign by the MKSS (workers and farmers power association) in the state of Rajasthan Right to information act (2002) Creation of a statutory right to government- held information Access to financial records of state agencies to monitor ground-level public expenditure activity (paper audit) Social audits (direct on the ground audit) MKSS team of activist auditors that engage in meticulous research including interviews with workers and contractors of public works, villages who observe the quality work or its absence, etc.
Answerability. Creation of adequate channels of feedback between service providers and citizens (mutual learning) Participatory institutions (social audits, participatory budgeting, health and educational councils, etc.) Input dimension Better signaling of needs Voice to previously marginalized groups (+ equity) More public and deliberative channels (vs. clientelism) Increased ownership of the governance process Output dimension More efficient use of existing resources More equitable distribution of public goods Reduces discretion, improves oversight Increased legitimacy of policies
Brazilian Health Councils Creation of mandatory policy councils Improvement in access to health services by the poor (health appointments x capita, number of hospital beds, money spent per appointment, infant mortality) Local/city administration Private health care providers Representatives of users of health care services (low income and little education) Representatives of health care service professionals
Social demands for enforcement: officials can be called into question by informal social mechanisms. Social accountability politics Social and media exposes of governmental wrongdoings Activation of Horizontal Mechanisms of Control To increase reputational costs for corrupt behaviors/ lower the social tolerance threshold Ombudsmen Courts Consumer Protection Agencies Public Service Regulatory Bodies Anti-corruption Offices Whistle blowing by permanent social watchdogs organizations Articulated Oversight
Articulated oversight to enforce the execution of the master plan for Matanza / Riachuelo basin Supreme Court Ombudsman Advocacy NGOs Grass-roots community organizations Auditor General Universities Federal Court Execution of a master plan to provide basic urban services to the population living in the basin (sewage, water, roads, housing, environmental clean up, etc.
Variety of mechanisms of citizen engagement to enhance governmental accountability STATEHYBRIDCIVIL SOCIETYINDIVIDUAL CITIZEN LEGAL ACCOUNTABILITY Activation of Horizontal Agencies Articulated oversight between social and horizontal mechanisms Media exposes Right to information campaigns Social watchdogs Complaint mechanisms POLITICAL ACCOUNTABILITY Increased use of Legislative and Judiciary Institutions Policy Councils with decision- making prerogatives Public interest lobbying in the legislative Use of courts to access services/ challenge policies Voting Complaint mechanisms/ Score cards