Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

5-1 Service Design Chapter 5. 5-2 Lecture Outline Service Economy Characteristics of Services Service Design Process Tools for Service Design Waiting.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "5-1 Service Design Chapter 5. 5-2 Lecture Outline Service Economy Characteristics of Services Service Design Process Tools for Service Design Waiting."— Presentation transcript:

1 5-1 Service Design Chapter 5

2 5-2 Lecture Outline Service Economy Characteristics of Services Service Design Process Tools for Service Design Waiting Line Analysis for Service Improvement Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3 5-3 Service Economy Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

4 5-4 U.S. Economy Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

5 5-5 Characteristics of Services Services –acts, deeds, or performances Goods –tangible objects Facilitating services –accompany almost all purchases of goods Facilitating goods –accompany almost all service purchases Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

6 5-6 Continuum From Goods to Services Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Source: Adapted from Earl W. Sasser, R.P. Olsen, and D. Daryl Wyckoff, Management of Service Operations (Boston: Allyn Bacon, 1978), p.11.

7 5-7 Characteristics of Services Service are inseparable from delivery Services tend to be decentralized and dispersed Services are consumed more often than products Services can be easily emulated Services are intangible Service output is variable Services have higher customer contact Services are perishable Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

8 5-8 Service Design Process Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

9 5-9 Service Design Process Service concept –purpose of a service; it defines target market and customer experience Service package –mixture of physical items, sensual benefits, and psychological benefits Service specifications –performance specifications –design specifications –delivery specifications Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10 5-10 Service Process Matrix Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

11 5-11 High vs. Low Contact Services Facility location Convenient to customer Design Decision High-Contact ServiceLow-Contact Service Near labor or transportation source Facility layout Must look presentable, accommodate customer needs, and facilitate interaction with customer Designed for efficiency Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12 5-12 High vs. Low Contact Services Quality control More variable since customer is involved in process; customer expectations and perceptions of quality may differ; customer present when defects occur Design Decision High-Contact ServiceLow-Contact Service Measured against established standards; testing and rework possible to correct defects Capacity Excess capacity required to handle peaks in demand Planned for average demand Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

13 5-13 High vs. Low Contact Services Worker skills Must be able to interact well with customers and use judgment in decision making Design Decision High-Contact ServiceLow-Contact Service Technical skills Scheduling Must accommodate customer schedule Customer concerned only with completion date Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

14 5-14 High vs. Low Contact Services Service process Mostly front-room activities; service may change during delivery in response to customer Design Decision High-Contact ServiceLow-Contact Service Mostly back- room activities; planned and executed with minimal interference Service package Varies with customer; includes environment as well as actual service Fixed, less extensive Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

15 5-15 Tools for Service Design Service blueprinting line of influence line of interaction line of visibility line of support Front-office/Back- office activities Servicescapes space and function ambient conditions signs, symbols, and artifacts Quantitative techniques Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

16 5-16 Service Blueprinting Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17 5-17 Service Blueprinting Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

18 5-18 Elements of Waiting Line Analysis Operating characteristics average values for characteristics that describe performance of waiting line system Queue a single waiting line Waiting line system consists of arrivals, servers, and waiting line structure Calling population source of customers; infinite or finite Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

19 5-19 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

20 5-20 Elements of Waiting Line Analysis Arrival rate (λ) frequency at which customers arrive at a waiting line according to a probability distribution, usually Poisson Service rate (μ) time required to serve a customer, usually described by negative exponential distribution Service rate must be higher than arrival rate (λ < μ) Queue discipline order in which customers are served Infinite queue can be of any length; length of a finite queue is limited Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

21 5-21 Elements of Waiting Line Analysis Channels number of parallel servers for servicing customers Phases number of servers in sequence a customer must go through Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

22 5-22 Operating Characteristics Operating characteristics are assumed to approach a steady state Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

23 5-23 Traditional Cost Relationships As service improves, cost increases Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

24 5-24 Psychology of Waiting Waiting rooms magazines and newspapers televisions Bank of America mirrors Supermarkets magazines impulse purchases Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

25 5-25 Psychology of Waiting Preferential treatment Grocery stores: express lanes for customers with few purchases Airlines/Car rental agencies: special cards available to frequent-users or for an additional fee Phone retailers: route calls to more or less experienced salespeople based on customers sales history Critical service providers services of police department, fire department, etc. waiting is unacceptable; cost is not important Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

26 5-26 Waiting Line Models Single-server model simplest, most basic waiting line structure Frequent variations (all with Poisson arrival rate) exponential service times general (unknown) distribution of service times constant service times exponential service times with finite queue exponential service times with finite calling population Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

27 5-27 Basic Single-Server Model Assumptions Poisson arrival rate exponential service times first-come, first-served queue discipline infinite queue length infinite calling population Computations λ = mean arrival rate μ = mean service rate n = number of customers in line Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

28 5-28 Basic Single-Server Model probability that no customers are in queuing system probability of n customers in queuing system average number of customers in queuing system average number of customers in waiting line Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ( ) P 0 = 1 – λμλμ ( ) ( )( ) P n = P 0 = 1 – λ n λ n λ μ μ μ L = λ μ – λ L q = λ 2 μ (μ – λ)

29 5-29 Basic Single-Server Model average time customer spends in queuing system average time customer spends waiting in line probability that server is busy and a customer has to wait (utilization factor) probability that server is idle and customer can be served Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1 L μ – λ λ W = = λ μ (μ – λ) Wq =Wq = λμλμ ρ = I = 1 – ρ = 1 – = P 0 λμλμ

30 5-30 Basic Single-Server Model Example Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. = 24 = 30

31 5-31 Basic Single-Server Model Example Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

32 5-32 Service Improvement Analysis Waiting time (8 min.) is too long hire assistant for cashier? increased service rate hire another cashier? reduced arrival rate Is improved service worth the cost? Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

33 5-33 Excel Single-Server Solution Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. D4/(D5-D4) (1/(D5-D4))*60 (D4/D5)*(D5-D4)*60

34 5-34 Advanced Single-Server Models Constant service times occur most often when automated equipment or machinery performs service Finite queue lengths occur when there is a physical limitation to length of waiting line Finite calling population number of customers that can arrive is limited Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

35 5-35 Advanced Single-Server Models Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

36 5-36 Advanced Single-Server Model Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Probability of zero customers

37 5-37 Basic Multiple-Server Model Single waiting line and service facility with several independent servers in parallel Same assumptions as single-server model sμ > λ s = number of servers servers must be able to serve customers faster than they arrive Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

38 5-38 Basic Multiple-Server Model probability that there are no customers in system probability of n customers in system Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1 λ n s!s n – s μ P 0, for n s 1 λ n n! μ ( ) { P 0, for n > s P n = 1 λ n 1 λ s sμ n! μ s! μ sμ - λ ( ) ( )( ) n = s – 1 n = 0 1 P 0 = +

39 5-39 Basic Multiple-Server Model probability that customer must wait Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ( ) 1 λ s sμ s! μ sμ – λ P w = P 0 λμ (λ/μ) s λ (s – 1)! (sμ – λ) 2 μ L = P 0 + LλLλ W =L q = L – λμλμ 1 L q μ λ W q = W – = ρ = λsμ λsμ

40 5-40 Basic Multiple-Server Model Example Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Three-server system

41 5-41 Basic Multiple-Server Model Example Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

42 5-42 Basic Multiple-Server Model Example Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

43 5-43 Basic Multiple-Server Model Example Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. To cut waiting time, add another service rep Four-server System

44 5-44 Multiple-Server Waiting Line in Excel Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

45 5-45 Multiple-Server Waiting Line in Excel Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

46 5-46 Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein. Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Download ppt "5-1 Service Design Chapter 5. 5-2 Lecture Outline Service Economy Characteristics of Services Service Design Process Tools for Service Design Waiting."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google