Presentation on theme: "U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Animal migration and spatial subsidies: Establishing a framework for conservation markets Darius."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Animal migration and spatial subsidies: Establishing a framework for conservation markets Darius Semmens 1, Laura López-Hoffman 2, and Jay Diffendorfer 1 1 USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center, Denver CO 2 School of Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ USGS Powell Center Working Group Economics - Ken Bagstad, John Loomis, Josh Goldstein, Jim Boyd Pintails - Wayne Thogmartin, Brady Mattson, Jim Dubovsky Bats – Gary McCraken, Rodrigo Medellin, Paul Cryan, Ruscena Weiderholt Monarchs – Karen Oberhauser, Leslie Ries
Outline Original problem: Assess and value services on a critical migratory flyway Migration support Migratory services Spatial subsidies model Implications Methods and data needs
Original Problem San Pedro widely considered a critical N-S flyway for neotropical migrant bird species Past research focused on value of San Pedro as a result of local ecotourism, primarily birding If San Pedro is critical flyway supporting migration to and from N. America, its value should also reflect this role How do we assign value for services San Pedro supports OUTSIDE of its boundary? What is this called?
A new type of Ecosystem Service – Migration Support Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Provisioning Services Regulating Services Cultural Services Supporting Services Soil formation, nutrient cycling, primary production We argue that sustaining animals during migration is another type of supporting service - migration support.
What is migration support? The degree to which one location supports the provision of ecosystem services in other locations by contributing to the overall viability of migratory populations Are some areas in fact more important than others for population maintenance? Quantify limits to current populations Food, water, or other resources Land/habitat area Harvest (deliberate or incidental) Pollutants
Migratory Services All ecosystem services provided by a migratory species throughout its range. Pollination Pest control Food Seed dispersal Cultural, etc. Motion distinguishes these species from the ecosystems they visit; it necessitates a species-focused approach to the assessment & valuation of their services
Spatial Subsidies Migration support is always a 2-way street; it is both provided and received The San Pedro supports migratory species and the services they provide in other areas BUT, the services these species provide in the San Pedro are dependent upon other areas as well The spatial subsidy at any given location is the net balance between migratory services received and migration support provided. Measures the degree to which the provision of migratory services in one location is subsidized by ecological conditions and processes in other locations. In effect, it is the amount a given location owes other locations for supporting migratory species and the services they provide locally.
Key Concept The spatial linkages created by migration mean that any consideration of the ES provided by a migratory species at a single location independently is incomplete We must quantify benefits and support everywhere before we can understand them anywhere.
Model - definitions Two primary parameters are required to calculate the subsidy. Both have to be estimated throughout the migratory range. Value of services provided by a species at each location Direct and indirect Proportional dependence of a species on each location Degree to which the location contributes to the maintenance of the population as a whole
Model – value of a place Net annual value at a location, adjusted for external subsidies from migration Can be summed across species Ranges need not overlap exactly
Implications of Quantified Subsidies Facilitate cross-jurisdictional cooperative management Foundation for the establishment of markets E.g. conservation payments directed towards limiting habitat could incentivize adoption of BMPs Sustainable & equitable allocation of exploited migratory species Better estimates of ES value at a location
Methods & Data Needs Accounting for service value by species is a different approach – current focus is endpoints Need spatial information on species interactions, with humans and ecosystems, to understand and model both direct and indirect benefits Socioeconomic data to value benefits Citizen science Proportional dependence has to be modeled Multisite demographic models Metapopulation models Migratory network model Semmens, D.J., J.E. Diffendorfer, L. Lopez-Hoffman, and C.S. Shapiro, 2011. Accounting for the ecosystem services of migratory species: Quantifying migration support and spatial subsidies. Ecological Economics 70 (12): 2236-2242.
USGS Powell Center Working Group Quantify subsidies Northern pintail ducks Mexican free-tailed bats Monarch butterflies Explore market implementation strategies Drivers? Government & treaties PES transfers Combined w/ other ES