Presentation on theme: "The Jacksonian Impulse. The Election of 1824 Four candidates emerged in the 1824 election William Crawford (Secretary of the Treasury) John Q. Adams (Secretary."— Presentation transcript:
The Jacksonian Impulse
The Election of 1824 Four candidates emerged in the 1824 election William Crawford (Secretary of the Treasury) John Q. Adams (Secretary of State) Henry Clay (Speaker of the House) Andrew Jackson All were Republicans, no Federalist candidate. The election turned on personalities and sectional allegiance.
Election of 1824 Jackson had more electoral votes and the largest number of popular votes. No candidate had a sufficient number of electoral votes to win the presidency outright. The top three were presented to the House of Representatives. Clay – who had the least number of electoral votes – was Speaker of the House: on the first ballot Adams was chosen as the sixth president. When Adams named Clay his Secretary of State charges of a corrupt bargain surfaced immediately.
John Quincy Adams 1824-1828 Adams was never able to overcome the results and the supposed corrupt bargain of the 1824 election. He supported the American System of Presidents James Madison and James Monroe. The American System was an economic plan based on the "American School" ideas of Alexander Hamilton, consisting of a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building, and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise and form a national currency. This program was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper, by providing a defense against the dumping of cheap foreign products, mainly at the time from the British Empire. Most of his initiatives were opposed in Congress by Jackson's supporters, who remained outraged over the 1824 election.
Campaign of 1828 Attacks on Jackson Preparations for the 1828 campaign by Jacksons supporters began as soon as the results of the 1824 election were announced. The Campaign was marked by mudslinging and the infamous Coffin Handbills. Authored by Charles Hammond, the first of the handbills accused Jackson of executing deserters during the War of 1812 and massacres during the Creek War and his habit of dueling.
Campaign of 1828 Continued Attacks on Jackson Later pamphlets attacked Jackson on moral grounds accusing him and his wife of adultery. "Ought a convicted adulteress and her paramour husband be placed in the highest offices of this free and Christian land?" - Charles Hammond Another handbill claimed that Jackson's mother was a prostitute brought by British soldiers to the United States.
Campaign of 1828 Jacksonians Retaliate Jacksons campaign charged that Adams, while serving as Minister to Russia, had provided an American girl servant to meet the Czars lustful desires. Adams was also accused of misappropriating public funds. He was charged with using the funds to buy gambling devices for the presidential residence – a chess set and a pool table.
Campaign of 1828 Tariff of Abominations – The Great Backfire Background Tariffs were originally authorized on April 27, 1816 under James Madison: amended on April 20, 1818 under James Monroe and again on May 22, 1824 under John Quincy Adams. Some tariffs were intentionally set high to help defray the cost of normal government expenses: Maintain the Army and Navy Maintain fortifications Pay interest and principal on public debt as they came due Rates were periodically adjusted to provide some protection against foreign competition for manufacturing in the North and agriculture in the South. Increased commercial exchange within the United States which in turn led to less dependence on foreign powers.
Election of 1828 Tariff of Abominations – The Great Backfire The Plan The 20 th Congress began on December 3, 1827 with a full complement of Jacksonian backers. Jackson would carry his native South Jackson would appeal to Westerners by posing as a military giant Jackson had no chance in New England Jackson should concentrate on the middle Atlantic states The middle Atlantic states were seeking protection for their developing industries. The Jacksonians proposed a new system of tariffs intentionally making the tariffs inordinately high – so high the Jacksonians figured that even the New Englanders would vote against the tariffs. The Jacksonians would, upon the defeat of the bill, raise old Billy cane with Jackson himself eventually riding to the rescue
Election of 1828 Tariff of Abominations – The Great Backfire Never Bet – Not Even on a Sure Thing Theres always a fly in the buttermilk. New Englands congressmen believing that the protection allowed by the bill must not be objectionable voted for passage. Jacksonians, knowing the bill was bad for the country but unable to admit to their scheming for fear of loosing the election, supported the bill solely to deprive Adams of another campaign issue. When the bill was presented to President Adams he signed it into law believing it had been honestly introduced, debated and passed. This was the infamous tariff of abominations that would eventually lead to the Nullification Crisis of 1832.
Election of 1828
The Jackson Presidency Key Issues The Nullification Crisis Internal improvements Indian policy The bank controversy
South Carolina claimed – using historical precedent – the right to nullify acts of Congress within its borders Jackson – Called nullification an impractical absurdity Sent Federal troops to southern ports Passed Force Act to compel obedience Gave emotional aura to idea of union Demonstrated willingness of federal government to go to war to preserve its legitimate powers The Jackson Presidency Nullification Crisis: 1828 - 1832
The Jackson Presidency Internal Improvements Jackson did not oppose internal improvements per se Supported National Road project Had same constitutional scruples as Madison & Monroe Opposed federal aid to local projects Marysville Rd, KY Veto of Marysville Rd Bill set an important precedent Limited federal initiatives Railroads would be built w/ private money until 1850
The Jackson Presidency Indian Removal Act (1830) President Andrew Jackson: Your white brothers will not trouble you; they will have no claim to your land, and you can live upon it, you and all your children, as long as the grass grows or the water runs, in peace and plenty. It will be yours forever.
Reduction of Cherokee Lands
The Jackson Presidency The Bank Controversy Jacksons traditional reasons for opposing the bank: Believed it unconstitutional (despite Supreme Ct. decision ) Reflected westerners distrust of banks Preferred a hard money policy To these were added new, substantive issues: Influence of foreign investors Favors & influence peddling by bank Combination of private & public functions Bank had undue power over the economy
The Jackson Presidency The Bank Controversy Jacksons veto message: It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Many of our rich men have not been content with equal protection and equal benefits, but have besought us to make them richer by act of Congress. (The bank) is dangerous to the liberties of the people.
Andrew Jackson Old Hickory
Politics in the 1830s Central elements of the political debate: Governments position on: 1) Banks 2) Tariffs 3) Internal improvements 4) Currency Balance of power between national and local authority
The Election of 1832 Democratic – Republicans Drop Republican – become simply Democrats Re-nominate Jackson No platform, run on hoopla and Jacksons popularity Nationalist-Republicans Nominate Henry Clay Endorse the American System Anti-Masonic Party First third party in U.S. politics First to hold a national nominating convention First to announce a party platform Jackson handily won reelection
Election of 1836 Second party system in place Would remain stable for about 20 years Democrats In place since 1832 (with roots back to Jefferson in 1803) Nominate Martin Van Buren (Jacksons V.P.) Whig coalition United by hostility to Jackson National – Republican core Remnants of Anti-Masonic Party Democrats unhappy w/ Jackson Adopted a strategy of multiple candidates (3) Hoped to throw election to House Van Buren easily won
The Second Party System Democrats Alarmed by widening gap between social classes Believed government should adopt hands- off attitude towards economy Supported by - Entrepreneurs Yeoman farmers City workingmen Strongest in South and West
The Second Party System Whigs Believed in the American System Insisted that government could and should guide economic development Supported by - Established businessmen & bankers Farmers near rivers, canals, Great Lakes Strongest in Northeast
The Election of 1840 <= Martin Van Buren (Democrat) William Henry Harrison => (Whig)