3 GILS Presentation Outline Concepts Information Discovery Metadata Semantic Mapping Standards and Perspectives Convergence Search Interoperability Z39.50 Implementors GILS and Geospatial Initiatives
4 Data / Information / Knowledge Management Processes
5 GILS focuses on Information Discovery GILS Goal: Make it easier for people to discover information
6 Why Is Information So Hard To Find? The "Information Discovery" Problem We need information but we cannot retrieve it, because we do not know who might have it or how we ask for it.
7 Why Is Information So Hard To Find? The Internet is not a Library, Yet Search services do not yet work with each other, nor with traditional libraries Internet lacks standards comparable to what libraries achieved many years ago
8 The GILS Vision Imagine The whole Internet organized in common ways to help us discover information Where anyone can make and publish their own catalogs instantly And, search includes not just Web pages but the world's library catalogs, atlases, directories, and databases
9 GILS Presentation Outline Concepts Information Discovery Metadata Semantic Mapping Standards and Perspectives Convergence Search Interoperability Z39.50 Implementors GILS and Geospatial Initiatives
10 Information Discovery Operates on Metadata (Characteristics) Who made it? What is its name? What type is it? Where is it stored? Is it free?
11 Unfortunately, Metadata is not Standardized Different terms for similar characteristics: file ownerfile namescientific data setprincipal investigatordata set namebiological specimencollectororganism namepatentassigneetitle spatial coverage originatortitle fromsubject news article by-lineheadlinedocumentauthortitle
12 GILS Presentation Outline Concepts Information Discovery Metadata Semantic Mapping Standards and Perspectives Convergence Search Interoperability Z39.50 Implementors GILS and Geospatial Initiatives
13 Semantic Mapping Approach Just for searching, associate metadata to standard bibliographic concepts: Who made it? fileownerfile namescientific data setprincipal investigatordata set namebiological specimencollectororganism namepatentassigneetitlespatial coverageoriginatortitle fromsubjectnews articleby-lineheadlinedocumentauthortitle What type is it? What is its name?
14 Metadata Metadata covers many characteristics But, just a few are almost always searchable In concept, these common metadata are equivalent to bibliographic citations Title Author Subject Date Place
16 Searching Metadata Task: find information where Title contains the word USGS GILS server searches any bibliographic catalogs and locator records where metadata is mapped to Title concept
17 Bibliographic Metadata Data- bases GILS Interface Locator Records Bibliographic Records Web pages GILS search service finds records in various formats, distributed across the Internet in various catalogs and databases
19 The GILS Standard Internet client/server (TCP/IP, etc.) Uniform Resource Identifiers (e.g., URL's) MIME Types Date Format (ISO 8601) ISO (Z39.50) Init, Search and Present services Type-1 queries (generic Boolean) Part of Bib-1 Attribute Set NOTE: Z39.50 has many optional specs GILS has only a few, required specifications
21 GILS and Z39.50 (ISO 23950) Provides a registered set of well-known semantics needed for semantic interoperability Provides an "abstraction layer" (hide the details) for information system interoperability Only standard for direct search of library and information services for the foreseeable future Demonstrated gateways to other standard search protocols (SQL, LDAP, DASL, UDDI) XML protocol mechanism (XER) in prototype now
23 Searcher Perspective GILS gives searchers a standard way to find information resources Because GILS uses standard bibliographic concepts, anyone who uses a library already understands GILS searches GILS locator records can be chained to support referrals into or among collections
24 Information Provider Perspective GILS defines an open, low-cost, and scalable standard across all phases of information and knowledge management Information providers and intermediaries provide content management tools based on metadata, as well as search services In a system architecture, a GILS interface cleanly separates the search function from networking and other components
25 A Note about User Interfaces A GILS search service is defined only at the network level The design of user interfaces for searching is outside the scope of GILS GILS places no constraints on how a search service may be presented to searchers
26 GILS Presentation Outline Concepts Standards and Perspectives Convergence Search Interoperability Z39.50 Implementors GILS and Geospatial Initiatives
27 Library and Information Services Catalogs Information Services, library OPAC's Documents, Data, Files, Records, etc. Locator Records Human cataloger Searcher Examples: Library of Congress, Agricola, Dialog/Lexis-Nexis, Chemical Abstracts Service
28 Metadata in Databases Database search (e.g., SQL) Documents, Data, Files, Records, etc. Metadata databases Searcher Human cataloger Examples: Right to Know Network, Global Change Master Directory, Catalog of Data Sources
29 First-generation Web crawlers Full-text index "Full-text" Indexer Search engine Documents, Data, Files, Records, etc. Searcher Gatherer digitize Examples: WAIS, Lycos, Harvest, Glimpse
30 Second-generation Web Crawlers Full-text index "Full-text" Indexer Metadata capable search engine Documents, Data, Files, Records, etc. Locator Records Searcher "Intelligent" Gatherer digitize Examples: Ultraseek, Advanced Search Facility
31 Service Description & Discovery GILS- compliant search Documents, Data, Files, Records, etc. Service Locators Searcher Locator Records Metadata databases Intermediary service GILS- compliant search Examples: NSDI/GSDI Clearinghouse, GELOS, CIESIN Full-text index
32 Search Portals using GILS Full-text index "Full-text" Indexer GILS- compliant search Locator Records Metadata databases Human cataloger Searcher "Intelligent" Gatherer digitize Examples: Web-Clarity, Blue Angel Gateway, FGDC Wizard Service Locators
33 GILS Presentation Outline Concepts Standards and Perspectives Convergence Search Interoperability Z39.50 Implementors GILS and Geospatial Initiatives
35 GILS and LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) GILS LDAP gateway Searcher using GILS LDAP directory (organizations, persons, resources) GILS records (organizations, persons, resources) Searcher using LDAP
36 GILS and SQL (Structured Query Language) GILS SQL gateway Searcher using GILS Relational database tables with various data, information GILS records with various data, information Searcher using SQL
37 GILS and DASL (Distributed Authoring Search and Locate) GILS DASL gateway Searcher using GILS DASL file attributes (name, owner, date last modified...) GILS records (title, author, date last modified...) Searcher using DASL
38 GILS and UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration) GILS UDDI gateway Searcher using GILS UDDI register (businesses, services, interfaces) GILS sources (catalogs, directories, inventories) Searcher using UDDI
39 GILS Presentation Outline Concepts Standards and Perspectives Convergence Search Interoperability Z39.50 Implementors GILS and Geospatial Initiatives
40 Z39.50 Register of Implementors Adlib Information Systems B.V. Ameritech Library Services ARCA Consortium |a|S|tec| angewandte Systemtechnik GmbH Aurora Information Technology Auto-Graphics Inc. Axiell Biblioteks System AB Basis Systeme netzwerk (BSn) Best Seller, Inc. Bibliotekstjdnst AB BIBSYS BLCMP Library Services Ltd. Blue Angel Technologies Book Systems, Inc. BSZ Baden-Wurttemberg Brigham & Women's Hospital British Library CARL Corporation Carnegie-Mellon University Libraries Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval CEO Programme, ENRM Development team CEOS (Commitee on Earth Observation Satellites) CGI Group Inc.
41 Z39.50 Register of Implementors Chemical Abstracts Service Cosmotron Systems Ltd. Crossnet Systems Limited COPAC Danish Library Centre, DanBib Dartmouth College Data Research Associates, Inc. Data Trek, Inc. DBV-OSI II Consortium Dedicated Response Dialog Corporation DIMDI (Deutsches Institut fuer Medizinische Dokumentation und Information) Distributed Systems Technology Centre DV Consulting EBSCO Publishing ELiAS Endeavor Information Systems, Inc. EnWare,S.A European Space Agency Excalibur Technologies Corporation Fachinformationszentrum (FIZ) Karlsruhe Finsiel S.p.A. Florida Center for Library Automation Fretwell-Downing Data Systems Fulcrum Technologies, Inc Gaylord CyberOdyssey Group Geac GTIS (Government Telecommunication, Canada)
42 Z39.50 Register of Implementors Harbinger GmbH Hardcover Software Index Data Information Access Company Innovative Interfaces Inc. INVESTools, Inc. Island Edge Research, Inc. ISM Library Information Services Japan Science and Technology Corporation Joanneum Research LEXIS-NEXIS Live Content Engineering & Design Pty Ltd The Library Corporation Library of Congress LIBRIS (Royal Library, Sweden) Lucent Technologies - Bell Laboratories Massachusetts Institute of Technology Miep MnSCU/PALS National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) Nat. Institute of Standards and Technology National Library of Australia National Library of Canada National Library of Medicine National Library of Norway OCLC Optimus Prime Pty Ltd Ovid Technologies Pace University School of Law
43 Z39.50 Register of Implementors Penn State University, Library Computing Services Pica Preston-Whitelaw, Ltd. (an Internet Systems, Inc. Co.) Raytheon Systems Company Stowe Computing Australia Sunstone Systems System Simulation Ltd. Tabula Interactive, Inc. Taliesin Software Research, Inc. Tieto Corporation UNI-C (Danish Computing Centre for Research and Education) UIGGM SB RAS University of Bradford University of California, Office of the President University of California at San Francisco Univeristy of Newcastle University of Texas at Austin, General Libraries University of Washington University of Wisconsin Madison U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Virginia Tech. VITROCISET S.p.A. VTLS, Inc. Washington University School of Medicine
44 GILS Presentation Outline Concepts Standards and Perspectives Convergence Z39.50 Implementors GILS and Geospatial Initiatives International and other National U.S. National U.S. States Communities
45 GILS and Geospatial Initiatives - Other Nations / International African Spatial Data Infrastructure Initiative, Antarctica, Argentina, Australia, Australia New Zealand Land Information Council, Barbados, Brazil, Canada, Caribbean, CERCO, Columbia, Committee on Earth Observing Satellites, Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark, DESIRE, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, EUROGI, European Environment Agency, European Legislative Virtual Library, European Space Agency, European Territorial Management Information Infrastructure, Finland,...
46 GILS and Geospatial Initiatives - Other Nations / International France, Germany, GI2000, Global Change Master Directory, Global Environmental Information Locator Service, Global Forest Information Service, Global Inventory Project, Greece, Guatemala, Health Information Locator Service for Latin America and the Caribbean, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, INFEO, InterAmerican Biodiversity Information Network, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kiribati, Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua,...
47 GILS and Geospatial Initiatives - Other Nations / International Pakistan, Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia & the Pacific, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Trans-European Research and Education Network, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United Nations Environment Program, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Program on Human Sustainable Development, Uruguay, Venezuela
48 GILS and Geospatial Initiatives - United States (National) Advanced Search Facility, Census Bureau, Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information, Clearinghouse for Government Information, DefenseLink, Digital Earth, Federal Resources for Education Excellence, Federal Depository Library Program, FedSearch, FirstGov, Gateway to Educational Materials, Gateway to the Earth, Global Change Data and Information System, Government Printing Office, Library of Congress Thomas, Master Environmental Library,...
49 GILS and Geospatial Initiatives - United States (National) National Atlas of the United States, National Biological Information Infrastructure, National Spatial Data Infrastructure, National Environmental Data Index, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Technical Information Service, National Wetlands Inventory, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Non-Profit Gateway, Patent and Trademark Office, Scientific and Technical Information Network, U.S. Federal GILS
50 GILS and Geospatial Initiatives - U.S. States Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
51 GILS Initiatives - Communities Baltimore, Seamless (Essex, U.K.), Chesapeake, Chicago, CommunityPlanet (Southeastern U.S.), Dane County WI, Fort Lauderdale FL, Gallatin County MT, Greensboro NC, Madison GA, Philadelphia PA, San Bernadino CA, San Francisco CA, Shenandoah Valley, South Florida, Southern Appalachia, Southwest Region, Tallahassee FL, Tillamook County OR, Tennessee Valley Authority, Tijuana River Watershed, Upper Susquehanna/ Lackawanna River Watershed