International Marketing of Services Services The extended marketing mix for services Elements of service People Processes Physical evidence
Services are distinguished from products mainly because they are generally produced at the same time as they are consumed, and cannot be stored away or taken. An enhanced marketing mix needs to be deployed.
Services Growth of service sector in advanced industrial societies market oriented trade with service organisations e.g. internal markets Marketing characteristics of services –intangibility –inseparability (cannot be separated from the provider) –heterogeneity (precise standardisation is difficult) –perishability (cannot be stored e.g. hotel rooms) –ownership (does not result in a property transfer)
The extended marketing mix for services People - the personnel Process e.g. airlines Physical evidence Personal selling Front line workers e.g. skills, attitude
People Appearance E.g. uniforms Professionalism E.g. doctors/police Attitude E.g. friendly v unhelpful Skills E.g. glass cutting Commitment E.g. clergymen Numbers E.g. enough waiters Behaviour E.g. MacDonalds Discretion E.g. lawyers
Processes Procedures E.g. form filling Information E.g. www.bbc.co.ukwww.bbc.co.uk Policies E.g. Argos 28 days Capacity levels e.g. easyjet/Go Mechanisation E.g. Package holidays Speed/timing E.g. Trains Queuing E.g. one in front Accessibility Cashpoints