Presentation on theme: "Andrew Jackson Old Hickory! By Morgan J. Burris. Intro to Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson was elected with wide popular support. As President, he stood."— Presentation transcript:
Andrew Jackson Old Hickory! By Morgan J. Burris
Intro to Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson was elected with wide popular support. As President, he stood up for federal authority, tried to move Native American to the West, and fatally undermined the Bank of the United States. A new party, the Whigs, emerged to oppose him.
The Election of 1824 Election of no winner of electoral college -John Q. Adams chosen over Jackson as President -Called corrupt bargain because Jackson had most votes -Jacksons supporters formed Democratic Party and opposed Adams policies My thoughts Exactly!
New Era in Politics Jackson won the election running as a war hero and the people s man, he opened his White House gala to the public…. Just imagine… Election of high voter turnout b/c voting requirements had been lowered -previous voting laws had limited voting to property owning white males -Jackson appealed to the Common Man -Jackson becomes first western President Jackson re-elected first use of national nominating conventions
Election of 1828
Jacksons view - Govt jobs are so plain and simple Jacksons Presidency -Common Mans President -creation of the Spoils System – give friends and supporter govt jobs for helping you get elected… -greater democracy, but women and minorities still ignored -Great Silence over the issue of slavery
II. The Nullification Crisis: Resentment about high tariffs led Southern states to claim that states could declare a federal law null or void. A. The Debate over Nullification Early 1800s, SC economy started to decline, many people blamed tariffs. Because South had few industries, it had to purchase manufactured goods usually English goods at high prices. 1. Tariff of Abomination – yet another new national tariff in SC threatened to secede from the Union 3. John C. Calhoun was Vice President and from State of SC 4. Calhoun put forth idea of nullification – since states had created the federal union, they should have power to reject it… 5. Series of debates in Jan 1830 between Robert Hayne (SC) and Daniel Webster (MA)
B. Jackson Defends the Union The war of words erupted into a full confrontation in 1832 when Congress passed yet another tariff law… 1. New law cut tariffs significantly, but still not enough for SC 2. SC hold special state convention in Nov 1832 nullifying the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 as unconstitutional. 3. Jackson saw nullification as treason, sent warship to Charleston.
Force Bill – authorizing president to use military force to enforce acts 5. Senator Henry Clay passed bill to gradually lower tariffs until 1842 / SC repealed its nullification. 6. Both sides claimed victory…..
Nullification Crisis -debate over high tariffs -Tariff of Abominations – yet another national tariff. -John C. Calhoun – Vice President & from SC! -theory of nullification Calhouns S.C. Exposition and Protest -S.C. threatens secession -Jackson threatens the use of force -Henry Clay organizes a compromise The Nullification Crisis:
III.Policies Toward Native Americans During Andrew Jacksons administration Native American groups were forced to relocate onto western reservations. A. Jacksons commitment to extend democracy did not extend to natives or Africans. During inaugural address, he declared to move all Native Americans to the Great Plains (most whites believed it was a vast wasteland / no water). If moved, conflict with whites would be over.
B. Indian Removal Act: 1830 bill provided money to relocate natives. 1. Cherokee of Georgia had adapted to white customs. Sued state of GA and WON in Worchester v. Georgia, but Jackson refused to enforce their rights… 2. Martin Van Buren sent in the army 1838 to force march the Cherokee from northern Georgia to Oklahoma, over 4000 died Trail of Tears. 3. By 1838, most tribes east of Mississippi had be relocated to reservations.
Indian Policy -different views about Indian policy -Indian Removal Act, 1830 – provides money to move Natives -Cherokee takes the issue to the Supreme Court and wins -Worchester v. Georgia -Jackson ignores the court and orders removal -Trail of Tears, 1838 – Over 4000 of the Cherokee die on way to OK
IV. Jackson Battles the National Bank Jackson deliberately destroyed the national bank, his opponents formed a new political party. A. Many westerners regarded national bank as a monopoly to benefit the rich. Bank was critical in regulating currency / keeping it stable. Most state banks could not produce the hard cash (gold and silver) to back their paper currency. 1. National bank would collect state notes to force moderation / control interest rates on loans / help preventing inflation. 2. Jackson vetoed charter to extend bank existence. 3. Jackson easily wins second term, paints bulls eye on Nat. Bank. 4. Jackson pulls all federal govt deposits from bank, slow death…
National Bank -Jackson disliked the Bank of the U.S. -thought it an abuse of power and served the wealthy first -thought it lacked the constitutional ability to exist -Jackson vetoed the new charter for the bank and withdrew all govt funds -Jackson placed govt funds in favored state banks which critics called the Pet Banks which led to a monetary crisis National Bank
B.New Party forms to oppose Jackson The Whigs (after the British who worked to limit the Kings power.)
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C. Martin Van Buren - New Whig party was no match for Jacksons Democratic Party, Martin Van Buren wins election of Panic of 1837: Economic Crisis, banks and businesses fail, thousands lose their farms and lands. - Buren like party believed in limited fed. Govt = did nothing….
Van Buren -Martin Van Buren was elected after Jackson -suffered b/c of Jacksons bank policies -Panic of 1837 left many in bad economic situations -Newly formed Whig party gains strength
D. Election of 1840 Whigs run Gen. William Henry Harrison, his running mate is former Democrat from the south, John Tyler, to pull southern to their party vote… 1. Harrison refuses to wear coat / hat during 2 hr speech, dies 32 days later…. 2. Once in office this Whig returns to former Democratic policies. CRAP! Mom always said to wear your coat!
Harrison & Tyler Harrison and Tyler -War hero William Henry Harrison becomes first Whig President -Harrison dies 1 month into office -John Tyler is first V.P. to become President