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Origins of American Government Chapter 2 Section 1 – The Colonial Period Section 2 - Uniting for Independence Section 3 – The Articles of Confederation.

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of American Government Chapter 2 Section 1 – The Colonial Period Section 2 - Uniting for Independence Section 3 – The Articles of Confederation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of American Government Chapter 2 Section 1 – The Colonial Period Section 2 - Uniting for Independence Section 3 – The Articles of Confederation Section 4 – The Constitutional Convention

2 Chapter 2, Sect. 1 The Colonial Period English Political Heritage- Limited Government – Magna Carta (1215) reinforced rule of law, prohibited loss of life, liberty & property except according to law Petition of Right (1628) limited kings power, - no taxation without Parliaments consent, - no imprisonment w/out just cause, - no housing of troops in homes w/out consent of owner

3 English Political Heritage- Limited Government (contd)– English Bill of Rights (1688) - No divine right to rule - Need Parliaments consent to suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain Army - Monarch cant intervene in Parliamentary elections - Right to fair & speedy trial by jury of peers - People not subject to cruel & unusual punishments Chapter 2, Sect. 1

4 Representative Government -Elected representatives carry on the government -Colonists familiar with English Parliament Upper Chamber – House of Lords (Aristocracy) Lower Chamber - House of Commons (Merchants, property owners) -Ideas of John Locke popular in colonies Two Treatises on Government, often referred to as Textbook of the American Revolution Chapter 2, Sect. 1

5 Government in the Colonies Most colonial governments had: 1.Written constitution 2.Elected legislature 3.Separation of powers from chief executive Early Written Constitutions 1.Mayflower Compact – (1620) written agreement for governance 2.Great Fundamentals – (1636) Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1 st basic system of laws 3.Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – (1639) 1 st formal constitution in America, plan for govt with means for election of governor, judges, & representatives Chapter 2, Sect. 1

6 Government in the Colonies Colonial Legislatures Virginia House of Burgesses (1619) – 1 st legislature in America Most other colonies followed Most colonial governments applied the principle of Separation of Powers Chapter 2, Sect. 1

7 Uniting for Independence Chapter 2, Sect. 2 Colonies growing independence, allowed much self-rule by Britain High cost of French & Indian War caused Britain to tighten rule & Extract more in taxes on tea, sugar, glass, paper, etc. Stamp Act (1765) – 1 st direct tax on colonists, taxed legal documents, Pamphlets, newspapers, dice & playing cards – resulted in Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts – passed in retaliation for Boston Tea Party, closed Boston Harbor, withdrew self government for Massachusetts All geared to increase Revenue

8 Chapter 2, Sect. 2 Uniting for Independence Albany Plan of Union (1754)- Proposed by Ben Franklin, rejected Because too much power given to Assembly of 13 colonies Committees of Correspondence – colonists banded together to urge resistance to the taxation 1 st Continental Congress (1774)- proposed embargo against British goods, discussion of rebellion growing 2 nd Continental Congress (1775)- assumed unity of colonies & Acted as a central government during Revolution

9 Chapter 2, Sect. 2 Uniting for Independence Declaration of Independence – (July 4, 1776) Incorporated key elements from John Locke, authored by Thomas Jefferson, w/input from John Adams & Ben Franklin 3 part statement – 1.Purpose & description of basic rights 2.List of complaints against King George III 3.Statement of determination to separate from England Colonies begin to think of themselves as states and some draft constitutions (7 with a Bill of Rights)

10 Chapter 2, Sect. 3 Articles of Confederation Plan for government ratified by the states unicameral legislature (one house) -each state had one vote -representatives picked by their states legislature -no executive branch -no federal judiciary Limited Powers to 1- make war & peace6- appoint senior officers 2- send & receive ambassadors7- fix standards (wghts & meas.) 3- enter into treaties8- regulate Indian affairs 4- raise & equip a navy9- establish Post Office 5- maintain army(troops from states)10- decide interstate disputes

11 Chapter 2, Sect. 3 Articles of Confederation Weaknesses- -No power to levy taxes on Individuals (Could only borrow or beg) -No power to regulate trade -No power to enforce its own laws -All laws needed approval of 9 out of 13 states (each state only 1 vote) -Amending the articles required unanimous consent -No executive branch -No judicial branch

12 Articles of Confederation Achievements- -Northwest Ordinance of Got states to cede western territories claimed to the central govt. -Established equal bases for entry into statehood of new territories -Peace Treaty with Great Britain, Congress established depts. of Foreign Affairs, War, Marine, and Treasury; each with their own permanent secretary Chapter 2, Sect. 3

13 Articles of Confederation Chapter 2, Sect. 3 Need for Stronger Govt. - States dispute boundary line, state to state tariffs -States began to deal directly with foreign govts. -DEBT, owed American soldiers for Revolution, owed foreign govts., Owed for ongoing operations of govt. (ex. Defense) - Economic depression led to Shays Rebellion 1787 Annapolis Convention All states invited, only 5 attended; to discuss problems with commerce


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