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Origins of American Government Chapter 2

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1 Origins of American Government Chapter 2
Section 1 – The Colonial Period Section 2 - Uniting for Independence Section 3 – The Articles of Confederation Section 4 – The Constitutional Convention

2 The Colonial Period English Political Heritage- Limited Government –
Magna Carta (1215) reinforced rule of law, prohibited loss of life, liberty & property except according to law Petition of Right (1628) limited king’s power, - no taxation without Parliament’s consent, - no imprisonment w/out just cause, - no housing of troops in homes w/out consent of owner Chapter 2, Sect. 1

3 English Political Heritage-
Limited Government (cont’d)– English Bill of Rights (1688) - No divine right to rule - Need Parliament’s consent to suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain Army - Monarch can’t intervene in Parliamentary elections - Right to fair & speedy trial by jury of peers - People not subject to cruel & unusual punishments Chapter 2, Sect. 1

4 Representative Government
-Elected representatives carry on the government -Colonists familiar with English Parliament Upper Chamber – House of Lords (Aristocracy) Lower Chamber - House of Commons (Merchants, property owners) -Ideas of John Locke popular in colonies Two Treatises on Government , often referred to as “Textbook of the American Revolution” Chapter 2, Sect. 1

5 Government in the Colonies
Most colonial governments had: Written constitution Elected legislature Separation of powers from chief executive Early Written Constitutions Mayflower Compact – (1620) written agreement for governance Great Fundamentals – (1636) Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1st basic system of laws Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – (1639) 1st formal constitution in America, plan for gov’t with means for election of governor, judges, & representatives Chapter 2, Sect. 1

6 Government in the Colonies
Colonial Legislatures Virginia House of Burgesses (1619) – 1st legislature in America Most other colonies followed Most colonial governments applied the principle of Separation of Powers Chapter 2, Sect. 1

7 Uniting for Independence
Colonies growing independence, allowed much self-rule by Britain High cost of French & Indian War caused Britain to tighten rule & Extract more in taxes on tea, sugar, glass, paper, etc. Stamp Act (1765) – 1st direct tax on colonists, taxed legal documents, Pamphlets, newspapers, dice & playing cards – resulted in Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts – passed in retaliation for Boston Tea Party, closed Boston Harbor, withdrew self government for Massachusetts All geared to increase Revenue Chapter 2, Sect. 2

8 Uniting for Independence
Albany Plan of Union (1754)- Proposed by Ben Franklin, rejected Because too much power given to Assembly of 13 colonies Committees of Correspondence – colonists banded together to urge resistance to the taxation 1st Continental Congress (1774)- proposed embargo against British goods, discussion of rebellion growing 2nd Continental Congress (1775)- assumed unity of colonies & Acted as a central government during Revolution Chapter 2, Sect. 2

9 Uniting for Independence
Declaration of Independence – (July 4, 1776) Incorporated key elements from John Locke, authored by Thomas Jefferson, w/input from John Adams & Ben Franklin 3 part statement – Purpose & description of basic rights List of complaints against King George III Statement of determination to separate from England Colonies begin to think of themselves as “states” and some draft constitutions (7 with a Bill of Rights) Chapter 2, Sect. 2

10 Articles of Confederation
Plan for government ratified by the states 1781 -unicameral legislature (one house) -each state had one vote -representatives picked by their state’s legislature -no executive branch -no federal judiciary Limited Powers to 1- make war & peace 6- appoint senior officers 2- send & receive ambassadors 7- fix standards (wghts & meas.) 3- enter into treaties 8- regulate Indian affairs 4- raise & equip a navy 9- establish Post Office 5- maintain army(troops from states) 10- decide interstate disputes Chapter 2, Sect. 3

11 Articles of Confederation
Weaknesses- No power to levy taxes on Individuals (Could only borrow or beg) No power to regulate trade No power to enforce its own laws All laws needed approval of 9 out of 13 states (each state only 1 vote) Amending the articles required unanimous consent No executive branch No judicial branch Chapter 2, Sect. 3

12 Articles of Confederation
Achievements- Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Got states to cede western territories claimed to the central gov’t. Established equal bases for entry into statehood of new territories Peace Treaty with Great Britain, 1783 Congress established depts. of Foreign Affairs, War, Marine, and Treasury; each with their own permanent secretary Chapter 2, Sect. 3

13 Articles of Confederation
Need for Stronger Gov’t. - States dispute boundary line, state to state tariffs States began to deal directly with foreign gov’ts. DEBT, owed American soldiers for Revolution, owed foreign gov’ts., Owed for ongoing operations of gov’t. (ex. Defense) - Economic depression led to Shay’s Rebellion 1787 Annapolis Convention All states invited, only 5 attended; to discuss problems with commerce Chapter 2, Sect. 3

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