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The Nature of Services. Learning Objectives n n Classify a service into one of four categories using the service process matrix. n n Describe a service.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Services. Learning Objectives n n Classify a service into one of four categories using the service process matrix. n n Describe a service."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nature of Services

2 Learning Objectives n n Classify a service into one of four categories using the service process matrix. n n Describe a service using the four dimensions of the service package. n n Discuss the managerial implications of the distinctive characteristics of a service operation. n n Discuss the insights obtained from a strategic classification of services. n n Discuss the role of a service manager from an open-systems view of service.

3 An Integrated Approach to Service Management The Eight Components Product Elements Place, Cyberspace, and Time Promotion and Education Price and Other User Outlays + Process + Productivity and Quality + People + Physical Evidence Require the Integration of Marketing, Operations, and Human Resources

4 Service/Product Bundle Element Core Goods Example Core Service Example Business Custom clothier Business hotel Core Business suits Room for the night PeripheralGoods Garment bag Bath robe PeripheralService Deferred payment plans In house restaurant Variant Coffee lounge Airport shuttle

5 The Service Process Matrix Degree Degree of Interaction and Customization of labor Intensity Low High Service factory: Service shop: * Airlines * Hospitals Low * Trucking * Auto repair * Hotels * Other repair services * Resorts and recreation Mass service: Professional service: * Retailing * Doctors High * Wholesaling * Lawyers * Schools * Accountants * Retail aspects of * Architects commercial banking

6 The Service Package n n Supporting Facility: The physical resources that must be in place before a service can be sold. Examples are golf course, ski lift, hospital, airplane. n n Facilitating Goods: The material consumed by the buyer or items provided by the consumer. Examples are food items, legal documents, golf clubs, medical history. n n Information: Operations data or information that is provided by the customer to enable efficient and customized service. Examples are patient medical records, seats available on a flight, customer preferences, location of customer to dispatch a taxi.

7 The Service Package (cont.) n n Explicit Services: Benefits readily observable by the senses. The essential or intrinsic features. Examples are quality of meal, attitude of the waiter, on-time departure. n n Implicit Services: Psychological benefits or extrinsic features which the consumer may sense only vaguely. Examples are privacy of loan office, security of a well lighted parking lot.

8 Distinctive Characteristics of Services n n Customer Participation in the Service Process: attention to facility design but opportunities for co- production n n Simultaneity: opportunities for personal selling, interaction creates customer perceptions of quality n n Perishability: cannot inventory, opportunity loss of idle capacity, need to match supply with demand n n Intangibility: creative advertising, no patent protection, importance of reputation n n Heterogeneity: customer participation in delivery process results in variability

9 Strategic Service Classification (Nature of the Service Act) Direct Recipient of the Service Nature of the Service Act People Things Peoples bodies: Physical possessions: Health care Freight transportation Passenger transportation Repair and maintenance Tangible actions Beauty salons Veterinary care Exercise clinics Janitorial services Restaurants Laundry and dry cleaning Peoples minds: Intangible assets: Education Banking Intangible actions Broadcasting Legal services Information services Accounting Theaters Securities Museums Insurance

10 Strategic Service Classification (Relationship with Customers) Type of Relationship between Service Organization and Its Customers Nature of Service Delivery Membership relationship No formal relationship Insurance Radio station Telephone subscription Police protection Continuous delivery Electric Utility Lighthouse of service Banking Public Highway Long-distance phone calls Restaurant Theater series tickets Pay phone Discrete transactions Transit pass Toll highway Sams Wholesale Club Movie theater Airline frequent flyer Public transportation

11 Strategic Service Classification (Customization and Judgment) Extent to Which Service Characteristics Are Customized Extent to Which Personnel Exercise Judgment in Meeting Customer Needs High Low Surgery Preventive health programs High Taxi services Education (large classes) Gourmet restaurant Family restaurant Telephone service Public transportation Hotel services Spectator sports Low Retail banking Movie theater Cafeteria Institutional food service

12 Strategic Service Classification (Nature of Demand and Supply) Extent of Demand Fluctuation over Time Extent to which Supply Is Constrained Wide Narrow Electricity Insurance Peak demand can Telephone Legal services usually be met Police emergency Banking without a major delay Hospital maternity unit Laundry and dry cleaning Tax preparation Fast food restaurant Peak demand regularly Passenger transportation Movie theater exceeds capacity Hotels and motels Gas station

13 Strategic Service Classification (Method of Service Delivery) Availability of Service Outlets Nature of Interaction between Customer and Service Organization Single site Multiple site Customer travels to Theater Bus service service organization Barbershop Fast-food chain Service provider Taxi Mail delivery travels to customer Pest control service AAA emergency repairs Taxi Transaction is at Credit card company Broadcast network arms length Local TV station Telephone company

14 Open Systems View of Services Service Process Consumer Evaluation Consumer arrivals Consumer participant departures Criteria (input) Consumer-Provider ( output) Measurement interface Control Monitor Customer demand Service operations manager Service personnel Production function: Perceived needs Alter Monitor and control process Schedule Empowerment Location demand Marketing function: supply Training Interact with consumers Attitudes Control demand Modify as necessary Define standard Service package Supporting facility Communicate Facilitating goods Basis of by advertising Explicit services selection Implicit services

15 Village Volvos Service Package n n Supporting Facility n n Facilitating Goods n n Information n n Explicit Services n n Implicit Services

16 Village Volvos Distinctive Service Characteristics n Intangibility n n Perishability n n Heterogeneity n n Simultaneity n n Customer Participation in the Service Process

17 Village Volvos Service Classification n Nature of the service act n Relationship with customers n Customization and judgement n Nature of demand and supply n Method of service delivery

18 Managing Village Volvo n n How could Village Volvo manage its back office (repair operations) like a factory? n n How can Village Volvo differentiate itself from Volvo dealers?

19 Xpresso Lube Facility

20 Xpresso Lubes Service Package n n Supporting Facility n n Facilitating Goods n n Information n n Explicit Services n n Implicit Services

21 Xpresso Lubes Distinctive Service Characteristics n Intangibility n n Perishability n n Heterogeneity n n Simultaneity n n Customer Participation in the Service Process

22 Xpresso Lubes Service Classification n Nature of the service act n Relationship with customers n Customization and judgement n Nature of demand and supply n Method of service delivery

23 Beyond Xpresso Lube n What elements of Xpresso Lubes location contribute to its success? n Given the example of Xpresso Lube, what other services could be combined to add value for the customer?

24 Topics for Discussion n n What are the characteristics of services that will be most appropriate for Internet delivery? n n When does collecting information through service membership become an invasion of privacy? n n What are some management problems associated with allowing service employees to exercise judgement in meeting customer needs? n n What factors are important for a manager to consider when attempting to enhance a service firms image? n n What contributions to the management of professional service firms can a business school graduate provide?

25 Interactive Class Exercise The class breaks into five groups and each group is assigned one of the service classifications (e.g., nature of act, relationship with customer, customization, nature of demand, or method of delivery) to come up with an example for each of the four quadrants in the matrix. The class breaks into five groups and each group is assigned one of the service classifications (e.g., nature of act, relationship with customer, customization, nature of demand, or method of delivery) to come up with an example for each of the four quadrants in the matrix.


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