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A Divided Nation: The Civil War What To Expect Learning Stations Activities Group Activities Computer Lab Cooperative Learning Opportunities Primary.

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Presentation on theme: "A Divided Nation: The Civil War What To Expect Learning Stations Activities Group Activities Computer Lab Cooperative Learning Opportunities Primary."— Presentation transcript:

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2 A Divided Nation: The Civil War

3 What To Expect Learning Stations Activities Group Activities Computer Lab Cooperative Learning Opportunities Primary Source Activities DBQ PowerPoint with Discussion Unit Assessment

4 What I Know About the Civil War What I Learned About the Civil War What I Want to Learn About the Civil War K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN

5 The Precursor: Westward Expansion Sectional Conflict - - Very Real and Very Important Each section wanted expansion Each wanted new states to be created in its own image Senate Balance Economic Motives Merchants and Industrialists of Northeast wanted an expanding market Free states proved to be a much better market for their products

6 The Precursor: Westward Expansion Economic Motives Southern Planters wanted new plantations Why? Soil on the old plantations no longer viable year after year of the same crop (poor crop rotation) Start a new plantation, start over Better economic opportunities through expansion

7 The Precursor: Westward Expansion TTYN: Describe the term Manifest Destiny Within this context (westward expansion), it was a term/ideology promoted by politicians to win popular support for expansionism

8 The Precursor: Westward Expansion The Opening of China Opium Wars America persuades the Chinese Emperor the same concessions as that of Britain; gave birth to the idea of enormous wealth as a result of trade w/ China Led to the projecting of a railroad to the Pacific Coast Each section wanted the RR to bring Chinese trade its way TTYN: How does Manifest Destiny fit into this equation?

9 Oregon, Texas, and the Mexican War Arrival of James Polk as a national figure Southern Platform (and now Polks) – reoccupation of Oregon and reannexation of Texas North – Fifty-four-forty or fight Eastern TX introduced cotton and plantation system TX achieved independence in 1836 TX wanted annexation

10 Oregon, Texas, and the Mexican War Polk negotiates with Britain for the Oregon Territory Enter CA – Remember China and Manifest Destiny 1845 – TX annexed Mexican War The Gadsden Purchase Small Group Activity The Gadsden Purchase

11 The Precursor: Westward Expansion and the effects of Manifest Destiny

12 Learning Activity: Bleeding Kansas

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14 Learning Stations: The Compromises Learning Stations - Working cooperatively, each group will rotate through the Compromises of the Civil War Each student will complete the Compromises of the Civil War Learning Packet

15 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 Henry Clay The Great Conciliator The Great Compromiser

16 SEC. 8. And be it further enacted. That in all that territory ceded by France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, not included within the limits of the state, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be, and is hereby, forever prohibited: Provided always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labour or service is lawfully claimed, in any state or territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service as aforesaid. Missouri Compromise

17 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 What was going on… Westward Expansion The Industrial North vs. the Agrarian South First crisis in the North-South sectionalism over the admission of Missouri Missouri –Slave State and Maine – Free State = Balance

18 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 Why the Missouri Compromise was important…

19 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 Why the Missouri Compromise was important… For the future, no other slave states should be admitted in the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri – the 36°30 East of the line was room for two more slave states and two free states Would stabilize the senate Compromise would become problematic when the area west was suitable for settlement

20 Slave and Free Areas after the Missouri Compromise, 1820

21 ..the Missouri question aroused and filled me with alarm…I have been among the most sanguine in believing that our Union would be of long duration. I now doubt it much. letter to William Short, April 11, 1820 …like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union. letter to John Holmes, April 22, 1820 Thomas Jeffersons Opinion What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820

22 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 is considered a turning point Shifted the public emphasis from expansion to preserving the Union May be considered the first in a chain of events of the 1850s that led up to the Civil War Fugitive Slave law was bitterly opposed by many throughout the North South remains bitter over the loss of CA as slave state because there was no place for another slave state

23 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850

24 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 It being desirable, for the peace, concord, and harmony of the Union of these States, to settle and adjust amicably all existing questions of controversy between them arising out of the institution of slavery upon a fair, equitable and just basis: therefore, 1. Resolved, That California, with suitable boundaries, ought, upon her application to be admitted as one of the States of this Union, without the imposition by Congress of any restriction in respect to the exclusion or introduction of slavery within those boundaries. 2. Resolved, That as slavery does not exist by law, and is not likely to be introduced into any of the territory acquired by the United States from the republic of Mexico… 8. Resolved, That Congress has no power to promote or obstruct the trade in slaves between the slaveholding States; but that the admission or exclusion of slaves brought from one into another of them depends exclusively upon their own particular laws.

25 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska Act The Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 undid the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of The tension between pro-slavery and free soil factions over slavery in new territories increased Stephen Douglas' bill left the Kansas territory open to the rule of popular sovereignty.

26 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska Act In the political arena, arguments between the Democratic Party, who supported popular sovereignty and states' rights, and their opposition, the Whigs, heated up and had lasting effects leading up to the outbreak of the Civil War. On the ground, fighting developed in "Bloody Kansas," such as John Brown's raid on Pottawattamie Creek

27 What I Know About the Civil War What I Learned About the Civil War What I Want to Learn About the Civil War K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN

28 Martyr or Terrorist? Small Group Reading Activity John Brown – Martyr or Terrorists Read the two readings of John Brown Working cooperatively, respond to the question at the end of reading #2. Present your remarks to class

29 MartyrTerrorist Martyr or Terrorist?

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31 John Browns Raid Martyr or Terrorist?

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33 Dred Scott

34 In March of 1857, the United States Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, declared that all blacks -- slaves as well as free -- were not and could never become citizens of the United States. The court also declared the 1820 Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, thus permiting slavery in all of the country's territories.

35 Dred Scott The case before the court was that of Dred Scott v. Sanford. Dred Scott, a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri, had appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom. Taney -- a staunch supporter of slavery and intent on protecting southerners from northern aggression -- wrote in the Court's majority opinion that, because Scott was black, he was not a citizen and therefore had no right to sue.

36 Dred Scott Abolitionists were incensed. Although disappointed, Frederick Douglass, found a bright side to the decision and announced, "my hopes were never brighter than now." TTYN : Why would Douglas suggest such an idea? For Douglass, the decision would bring slavery to the attention of the nation and was a step toward slavery's ultimate destruction.

37 Dred Scott Abolitionists were incensed. Although disappointed, Frederick Douglass, found a bright side to the decision and announced, "my hopes were never brighter than now." TTYN : Why would Douglas suggest such an idea? For Douglass, the decision would bring slavery to the attention of the nation and was a step toward slavery's ultimate destruction.

38 Dred Scott TTYN – The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, did Taney ignore the basic ideas of each? Specifically, all men are created equal. He believed that blacks "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could be made by it."

39 It is no novelty to find the Supreme Court following the lead of the Slavery Extension party, to which most of its members belong. Five of the Judges are slaveholders, and two of the other four owe their appointments to their facile ingenuity in making State laws bend to Federal demands in behalf of "the Southern institution. - Editorial in the Albany, New York, Evening Journal, 1857 Dred Scott

40 The Election of 1860

41 The presidential Election of 1860 brought these conflicts to a head with dramatic consequences. The Democratic Party split into three groups along regional lines, each vying for control of the party and each holding different ideas about how to deal with slavery in the West. Three camps lined up against Abraham Lincoln, the nominee of the Republican Party, who advocated that the West be free of slavery entirely.

42 The Election of 1860 Lincolns opponents were so deeply divided, he won with less than forty percent of the popular vote (but with fifty-nine percent of the Electoral College) and without taking a single slave state. Although Lincolns election was fair, it nonetheless pushed the Deep South toward secession.

43 The Election of 1860 Lincoln – The Immediate Reason for Secession Unpopular in the South Perceived hostility towards slavery Perceived threat to the institution Truth – Lincoln was not an extreme abolitionist He opposed further extension, but had no intention of interfering with slavery where it existed The election – The straw that broke the camels back

44 Secession South Carolina responded to Lincolns election first, seceding from the Union on December 20, This action made front-page news in the North two days later when Harpers Weekly featured portraits of the states Congressmen on its cover, titled The Seceding South Carolina Delegation.

45 Secession Other slave states followed in short order: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. In early February, representatives of those states gathered in Montgomery, Alabama, to found a new nation, The Confederate States of America (also known as the Confederacy), and to name its president, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.

46 Why Secession? Southern Economic Interests Long-range threat to the entire economic and social structure of the South No. Republicans pushing for a homestead law Northern Railroad plans High Tariffs Sectional balance in the Senate

47 Secession: An opportunity to bring peace? Many believed that secession would put the South into a bargaining position to secure a constitutional amendment to safeguard Southern interests. Better terms outside of the Union than in it Peace Convention Seven Amendments presented None were put forward Secession would have to see it through

48 Causes of the Civil War Causes

49 The Civil War - the bloodiest conflict in American history. The war pitted brother against brother, family against family, and state against state. In less than a century after the 13 original colonies celebrated their independence, the Civil War divided the country along deep economic and ideological fault lines. __________________________________________________________________ Causes of the Civil War

50 Learning Activity: Be a Gamer

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52 Be a Gamer – What Did We Learn Group Presentations

53 Civil War Facts 1/2 million people were killed or wounded in the Civil War 60 % of the fighting took place in Virginia

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55 Abolitionist Movement Abolitionist were people who wanted to end slavery or get rid of it. Frederick Douglass was a well-known abolitionist. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will.

56 Abolitionist Movement: The Underground Railroad Was a system setup to help slaves (African Americans) escape to the Northern USA or Canada. Slaves hid in barns and houses

57 Nat Turner Nat Turner lead a rebellion against plantation owners in 1831 and killed 60 people

58 Jefferson Davis President for the South during the Civil War. The Souths Capital was Richmond, Virginia

59 Stonewall Jackson Between late 1860 and early 1861, several Southern U.S. states declared their independence and seceded from the Union. At first it was Jacksons desire that Virginia, then his home state, would stay in the Union. Virginia seceded in the spring of 1861, Jackson showed his support of the Confederacy, choosing to side with his state over the national government.

60 Stonewall Jackson He knew that the Valley was the bread basket for the South. Edinburg produced the most wheat. Jackson only lost in the Kenstown. He didnt use chairs because he believed that standing was good for you.

61 Robert E. Lee No man proved a more worthy opponent to Ulysses S. Grant than Confederate General Robert E. Lee. Supervised the preparation of coastal defenses along the South Atlantic seaboard before being called to Richmond to serve as military advisor to President Jefferson Davis.

62 Robert E. Lee He assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in May 1862 and immediately embarked on a series of skillful offensive operations that repelled the Union forces outside Richmond in the Seven Days Battles in June and July Lee followed this with an offensive drive northward that culminated in victory at Second Manassas in August However, his effort to carry the war across the Potomac nearly led to disaster when he barely fended off Union assaults at Antietam.

63 Robert E. Lee Retreating back to Virginia, Lee again displayed deft generalship by checking Union offensives at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville; in the latter battle he prevailed, despite being outnumbered two to one Suffered a major defeat at Gettysburg on July 13, 1863.

64 Fort Sumter The first major battle of the Civil War began on April 12, After 2 days, the North surrendered to the South. No one was killed but 1 soldier who was killed when a cannon backfired during the surrendering ceremony.

65 The 1st Manassas or 1st Bull Run, VA July 21,1861 The general for the confederates was Stonewall Jackson & Buearegard. The general for the Yankees was McDowell. The North had 387 soldiers killed while the South lost 460. The South won the battle.

66 2nd Manassas or 2nd Bull Run, VA August 29-30, 1862 The general for the Confederate was Stonewall Jackson. The general for the Yankees was John Pope. The North lost 16,000 soldiers while the South lost only 9,000 The South won the battle.

67 Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland September 17, 1862 The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee. The general for the Yankees was McClellan.

68 Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland The Bloodiest One Day Battle in American History Over 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours of savage combat on September 17, The Battle of Antietam ended the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia's first invasion into the North and led to Abraham Lincoln's issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

69 The Battle took place in Farmer Millers cornfield. The battle is known as the Single bloodiest day in the Civil War. 23,500 men were killed in the Bloody lane. The name of the bridge where the confederates held the Yankees for 4 hours is called, Burnside. The south used rocks when they ran out of ammunition. South won the battle. Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland

70 Battle Of Fredericksburg Dec , 1862 The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee The general for the Yankees was Burnside. The North had 122,000 soldiers while the South had 78,500

71 9,000 Union soldiers were killed while only 1,500 Southern soldiers were killed. The South won the battle. Lee said, It is well that was is so horrible, else we should grow too fond of it. Battle Of Fredericksburg

72 Thinking about our time discussing the Revolutionary War (Remember that??) Which battle during the Revolutionary War is considered the turning point? Every war has a turning point and the Civil War is no different. The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) is widely considered to be the turning point of the American Civil War The Battle of Gettysburg

73 For three grueling days, Union Soldiers and Confederate Soldiers staged one of the bloodiest battles of the war. The South, led by General Robert E. Lee, and supported by 75,000 Confederate Soldiers would ultimately suffer an emotional, physical, and spiritually draining loss against General George Meade and his 97,000 Union Soldiers. Lee would never again attempt an offensive operation of such proportions. Although the war was to continue for two more horrible years, the Confederacy would never recover from the losses of Gettysburg. The Battle of Gettysburg

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75 Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met here on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense we can not dedicate - we can not consecrate - we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled, here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they have, thus far, so nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

76 "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. ….that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from the earth. - Abraham Lincoln

77 So, What does the Gettysburg Address ell Us?

78 Shermans March to the Sea November 15 until December 21, 1864, Union General William T. Sherman led some 60,000 soldiers on a 285-mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. The Goal of this March to the Sea was to frighten Georgias civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause.

79 Shermans March to the Sea Shermans soldiers did not destroy any of the towns in their path, but they stole food and livestock and burned the houses and barns of people who tried to fight back. The Yankees were not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, Sherman explained; as a result, they needed to make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war.

80 William Tecumseh Sherman

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83 April 9, 1865 Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, court house, Virginia. Appomattox Court House

84 What I Know About the Civil War What I Learned About the Civil War What I Want to Learn About the Civil War K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN

85 A Slave Advertisement The Issue of Slavery

86 Slave Auction House Atlanta, Georgia (1865)

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89 Enslaved Dock Workers Alexandria Virginia (1860)

90 A Pro-Slavery Lithograph (1850)

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92 The Emancipation Proclamation In 1862 and 1863, Lincoln delivered the ultimate death blow to slavery. First, 1862, Lincoln issued an executive order, which suggested that any Confederate State that did not return to the Union by Jan. 1, freedom would be granted to all the slaves within those states. Then, on Jan 1, 1863, after no state took Lincoln up on his offer, Lincoln unleashed the ultimate blow – declaring that all slaves in every state are now free.

93 The Emancipation Proclamation The proclamation declared, "all persons held as slaves within any States, or designated part of the State, the people whereof shall be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free." The Emancipation Proclamation had almost no immediate effect, since it was impossible for the Federal government to implement it in those regions where it actually applied -- namely the states in rebellion that were not under Federal control.

94 The Emancipation Proclamation Despite the lack of any immediate impact on the slaves, the proclamation represented a shift in the attitudes of the North towards its war objectives, where merely reuniting the nation would no longer become the sole outcome. It represented the first step toward the ultimate abolition of slavery in the United States.

95 The Emancipation Proclamation A Diplomatic Move Goal – keep Britain neutral Remember, from the beginning, Lincoln was reluctant to make slavery the key issue. Why? Would drive the border slave states into secession Once Military possessions were in the hands of the Union Army, Lincoln throws down the hammer – the Emancipation Proclamation

96 The Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln knew that the Queen and working population were anti-slavery Introducing the slavery issue would make it impractical for the British Govt to come to the aid of the Confederacy TTYN – Do you believe that Lincoln finally came to his senses regarding slavery or was the Emancipation Proclamation driven by diplomatic purposes?

97 Jan – South Carolina, the first state to secede from the Union Mar – Lincoln inaugurated Apr – Fort Sumter attacked Apr – Battle of Shiloh (24K Troops killed) Jan – Emancipation Proclamation Jul – Battle of Gettysburg Jul. 19, 1863 – Gettysburg Address Nov – Shermans March to the Sea Nov – Lincoln re-elected Apr. 9, 1865 – The South surrenders Apr. 14, 1865 – Lincoln assassinated The Civil War Timeline

98 Of the 364,000 on the Union side who lost their lives, a third were killed or died of wounds and two-thirds died of disease Approximately 130,000 freed slaves became Union soldiers during the war. According to the U. S. Census, the population of the United States in 1860 numbered 31,443,321 persons. Of these, approximately 23,000,000 were in the 22 Northern states and 9,000,000 in the 11 Southern states. Of the latter total, 3,500,000 were slaves. At one time or another, the Northern armies numbered 2,100,000 soldiers. The Southern armies were considerably smaller. The total dead on both sides was about 500,000. The Union Army consisted of between 2.5 to 2.7 million men while the Confederate forces had 750,000 to 1.2 million men. The Union Army lost approximately 360,000 men during the war. Only 110,070 of these men were listed as having been killed in battles. The remainder were listed as having died of disease or other causes. The Confederate forces lost approximately 258,000 men with 94,000 listed as having died in battles while 164,000 were listed as having died of disease or other causes. The figures of the Confederate's will never be known for sure because many records were either lost or destroyed.

99 Learning Activity: DBQ

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107 Unit Assessment: Two-Day Event Day One Multiple Choice Short Answer IDs Day Two Thematic Essay

108 Unit Assessment: Day Two: Thematic Essay Thematic Essay Prompts: You will be offered one of the following prompts to respond to:

109 Option 1: Throughout the history of the United States, Presidents have made important decisions in an effort to solve crucial problems. From your study of United States history and the Civil War, identify two important Presidential decisions that Abraham Lincoln made. For each decision identified: State one goal the President hoped to accomplish by making the decision Discuss the historical circumstances surrounding the Presidential decision Describe the extent to which the decision achieved the President's original goal Discuss one immediate or one long-term effect of the decision on United States history

110 Option 2: During the Antebellum period, there were multiple attempts to stave of secession and maintain the unity of the United States. From your study of the United States history and the Civil War, identify two important compromises made in order to maintain the unity of the United States. For each compromise identified: State one goal the compromise hoped to accomplish Discuss the historical circumstances surrounding the compromise Describe the extent to which the compromise achieved the original goal Discuss one immediate or one long-term effect of the compromise


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