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SCYCLE OPERATING UNIT E-waste Management: from EPR theory to Collection & Treatment practice Federico Magalini – email: magalini [at] unu.edu.

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Presentation on theme: "SCYCLE OPERATING UNIT E-waste Management: from EPR theory to Collection & Treatment practice Federico Magalini – email: magalini [at] unu.edu."— Presentation transcript:

1 SCYCLE OPERATING UNIT E-waste Management: from EPR theory to Collection & Treatment practice Federico Magalini – magalini [at] unu.edu

2 11 Dec 2012 UNU - ISP Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 2 Combining natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities, thus following a trans-disciplinary research approach Hosting the Secretariat of the Solving the E- waste Problem Initiative Merge of UNU ESD (Environment & Sustainalbe Development) and and UNU Peace & Government Institute in 2009 Located in Tokyo UNU-ISP SCYCLE: 1st Operating Unit outside Japan Focus on 3 themes: Global Change & Sustainability International Cooperation & Development Peace-building &security

3 11 Dec 2012 StEP Initiative Solving the E-waste Problem (StEP) Initiative was created to.. Initiate and facilitate environmentally, economically & socially sound approaches to reduce e-waste flows and handle them in a sustainable way around the globe Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 3 Functions as a network of actors who share experiences and best practices Carries out research and development projects Disseminates experiences, best practices and recommendations

4 11 Dec 2012 StEP Members Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 4 61 Members from: Companies (from different Industries, OEM, Recyclers,…) Governmental Organizations NGOs International Organizations Academic Institutions

5 11 Dec 2012 StEP: 5 complementary TFs Projects Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 5 Completed working phase $ acquisition phase ; ? idea phase White Paper Recast WEEE Directive White Paper Take-Back Systems Research Study Best e-waste policies White Paper Recast WEEE Directive White Paper Take-Back Systems Research Study Best e-waste EEE and Climate Green Paper on E-waste White Paper on Transboundary Shipments Policy DfR Case Studies Library Research study Wearable Computers Closing the Loop ? Certification Technology for Recycling Plastic DfR Case Studies Library Research study Wearable Computers Closing the Loop ? Certification Technology for Recycling Plastic ReDesign 1 st World ReUse Forum White Paper One Global Understanding of Re-use Best practices in ReUse ? Recommendations for ReUse certification/guidelines 1 st World ReUse Forum White Paper One Global Understanding of Re-use Best practices in ReUse ? Recommendations for ReUse certification/guidelines ReUse Research study Recycling – From E-waste to Project Best of 2 Green Paper on End-of- Life Standards Research study Recycling – From E-waste to Project Best of 2 Green Paper on End-of- Life Standards ReCycling Capacity ADDRESS Project StEP Ewaste Summer School ADDRESS Project StEP Ewaste Summer School Series E-waste Academy for Policymakers & SMEs ? Online Recycling Trainer

6 EWA: Goals and Aims Offer a diverse, interdisciplinary curriculum Complemented by expert lectures, groupwork, site visit(s) – guided by industry facilitators and rapporteurs Apparatus for scientific feedback and constructive advice enabling a more holistic e-waste perspective Establish platform for exchange of best practices Snapshot into status of e-waste legislation development in participants countries Foster better-informed decision making Paving the way for a sustaining network & continued interaction after the EWA! 6 11 Dec 2012Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste

7 11 Dec 2012 EWA: Programme at glance Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 7 Day1 Day2 Day3 Day4 Day5 Broader scenario of policy impacts on sustainability Stimulate discussion on how policy enables changes Snapshot into current policy situation in target region Mapping of stakeholders/roles and actual gaps Classification of waste/fractions Example of import bans and functionality tests for refurbishable products Dismantling session: role of manual dismantling, classification of fractions/training & safety, basic tools Basics for market for fractions & components Complexity of recycling chain: steps, roles, waste streams & technologies End-processing options & approaches for PWB & Plastics Pre-Processor Panel: approaches in developing countries: collection, recycling technologies, training & safety, downstream markets, Start-up & Operations, Condition for Success Role of notifications for regional approaches in waste management Return shipments for un-wanted e-waste streams Role of recycling standards Effectiveness of policy and involvement of stakeholders Presentation of Group-works outputs: Lessons learnt by individuals + personal backgrounds and experiences, elaborated in each group will be shared across all Participants Feedbacks from other Participants, Experts and Facilitators in the room

8 EWA: Group Work Activities 4 Groups, 4-5 persons per group Mixture of policymakers and SMEs Clustering persons from different regions, context, backgrounds Daily assigned tasks comprising the themes, activities and topics of the day Stimulate ongoing collaboration and networking Results-oriented!! Develop long-term roadmap to be implemented in participants countries enhancing sustainable long-term solutions/approaches Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 8 11 Dec 2012

9 ADDRESS Project: Size does matter! % 10% 5% 4% 30% 1990 EEE Put on Market Million tons Total: 19.5 Mt 11 Dec 2012Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 9

10 ADDRESS Project: Size does matter! % 10% 5% 4% 30% % 7% 8% 4% 25% EEE Put on Market Million tons Total: 34 Mt 11 Dec 2012Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 10

11 ADDRESS Project: Size does matter! % 10% 5% 4% 30% % 7% 8% 4% 25% % 6% 15% 6% 20% EEE Put on Market Million tons Total: 57.4 Mt 11 Dec 2012Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 11

12 ADDRESS Project: Size does matter! % 10% 5% 4% 30% % 7% 8% 4% 25% % 6% 15% 6% 20% % 5% 19% 7% 18% EEE Put on Market Million tons Total: 76.1 Mt 11 Dec 2012Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 12

13 ADDRESS Project: Changing Patterns = 63% = 39% Upcoming ?!?= 61% 11 Dec 2012Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 13

14 Key issue: the EPR loop 14 TREATMENT SEPARATE COLLECTION RECYCLE DISPOSAL REUSE System Design OEM = Product Design + Manufacturing + EOL (EPR) 11 Dec 2012Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste

15 EPR and DfR: how to close the loop? Reasoning for EPR on EoL is (mainly) rewarding DfR. Effectiveness of DfR over EoL hampered by: Life cycle assessment 15 Average CE products Source: Huisman Sometimes Trade-off: Hg: IN for energy savings OUT for EoL 11 Dec 2012Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste

16 Eco-Design: how to play effective role? Improving EoL performances of Electronic product: Decrease the value of materials in manufacturing stage Minimize worst case scenario (landfilling & toxicity control) Maximize environmental value of fractions recovered 16 Source: Huisman Hard to be rewarded simply by means of DfR benefits over time France: differentiated upfront tariffs for Producers 11 Dec 2012Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste

17 Resource Perspective: Elements in Mobile Phone Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste11 Dec

18 11 Dec 2012 Products (&Metals): for Sustainable Life or making Life Sustainable? Printed Circuit Boards: PGM, Sb, Ta, La, Nd, Cu, Sn, Pb,… LED: Ga, In, REs Getters (lighting): W, Ta Fluorescent powders: REs (LA, Tb, Eu, Y, Ce) Flame Retardants: Sb Batteries (HEV, EEE): Co, REs (Ce, La, Nd, Pr) PV Modules: Ga, Te, Ge, In LCD screens: In Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 18

19 Global Material Extraction Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste11 Dec

20 11 Dec 2012 Escalators, Criticality… Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 20 Ag: 250 mg Au: 24 mg Pd: 9 mg Cu: 9 g Co: 3.8 g Nd+Pr: 1 kg Dy: 0.15 kg La: 2.3 kg Ag: 325 t Au: 31 t Pd: 12 t Cu: 12,000 t Co: 4,900 t 1.3B sales 2008 X 0.4M sales 2009 X Nd+Pr: 404 t Dy: 60.6 t La: t Ag: 20,000 t/y(1.6%) Au: 2,500 t/y(1.2%) Pd: 230 t/y(5.2%) Cu: 16 Mt/y(0.1%) Co: 60,000 t/y(8.2%) 2008 World Mining / Nd+Pr: 25,200 t/y(1.6%) Dy: 2,000 t/y(6.5%) La: 33,000 t/y(2.9%) 2009 World Mining / Rounded from: Hagelüken et. al, Hatch, US Geological Survey 60 x gold mines

21 11 Dec 2012 …and Choices Increasing demand Supply Chain restrictions Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 21 1 Tesla Notebook OR Economic Environmental Social PROPER e-Waste RECYCLING

22 Policy Principles: Role Game Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste Dec 2012

23 A proper Recycling Chain: ending up with End-Processing Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 23 ONLY EFFICIENCY TROUGH ALL STEPS CAN ENSURE RECOVERY Separate collection No MSW No cherry picking No wrong stream Specific Targets Collection Pre- Processing Man./Aut. Disass. De-pollution Fractions Removal Channel to End- Processing End- Processing Efficient recovery to raw materials High-Tech No informal recycling Environmental Gain

24 11 Dec 2012 Stakeholders, Recycling Chain, Responsibilities and Policy Options StakeholderRoles & ResponsibilitiesMultiple Options ProducersDesign to Avoid Recycling Accidents; reduce disassembly times MunicipalitiesEnable cheap collection RetailersAny old for any new (same category) ConsumersHand in old products RecyclersInvest in eco-efficient treatment Compliance Schemes PR; Maximise collection amounts GovernmentsProvide clear framework; monitor; leave responsibility to chain Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 24

25 11 Dec 2012 Focus on Policy Options: PRO vs CONS for Different Types of Schemes OptionsCountryPRO (examples)CONS (examples) MonopolyBE, NO, LUX, SE, NL, CH Focus on effectiveness, PR Economies of scale Could have inefficiencies Less pressure on cost reduction Multiple Schemes with NO Clearinghouse IE Split territory: economies scale Long term optimization UK Evidences scheme incentivise collection Market distortion/Access to waste Multiple Schemes with Clearinghouse IT, FR Level playing filed Difficult optimization as collection point being assigned annually Individual Producers/Schemes with Clearinghouse DE Freedom of choice how to fulfil responsibilities Pressure on cost reduction Optimization difficult Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 25

26 11 Dec 2012 Example of Italy: Clearinghouse Role & Responsibilities Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 26 Minimum recycling Standards agreed with Recyclers Association List Certified Recyclers (IT + EU) Mandatory Pre-Processing by Schemes only in Certified Recyclers for B2C 2009 Data on Export: 2,500 t B2C exported (AT, DE) 110,000 t B2B exported (China, Pakistan) 2009 Data on Export: 2,500 t B2C exported (AT, DE) 110,000 t B2B exported (China, Pakistan)

27 11 Dec 2012 Focus on Policy Options: PRO vs CONS for access to waste Municipal Collection Points OptionsCountryPRO (examples)CONS (examples) Ownership Municipalities UK Financial incentive to collect, due to recoup through evidence mechanisms Distortion for big schemes with no access to waste Hand-Over to Scheme + charging cost NL Financial incentive to promote collection Leakages still occur AT Flat rates & minimum requirements for collection points Hand-Over to Scheme at no cost DK Cost to be reimbursed by taxpayers: harmonize actions DE Step-out for all streams Proper standards needed Hand-Over to Scheme + efficiency reward IT Push for quality in collection Hard for small collection points Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 27

28 11 Dec 2012 Example of Italy: promoting efficiency in Collection Points Starting (2009) with reward depending on: Number of inhabitants (promote aggregation of collection points) Minimum weight for pick-up requests (improve logistics efficiency) Changed to (2010): Tons collected (promote effectiveness of collection points) Minimum weight for pick-up requests (improve logistics efficiency) Now (2012) based on: Access to collection points by retailers (promote retailers collection network) Minimum weight for pick-up requests (improve logistics efficiency) Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 28 Use of goal-oriented financial incentives

29 11 Dec 2012 Focus on Policy Options: PRO vs CONS role Retailers OptionsCountryPRO (examples)CONS (examples) Retailers accept old- for-new + VF share IE Helping Retailers to compensate part of costs incurred Discuss with local authorities alternative to shop-return Retailers accept any- old (per Type of EEE) CH, NO Easier for consumers DK Only on voluntary basis Could hamper total numbers Retailers accept old- for-new + exemptions HU Only if selling area more than 35 sqm Smaller are usually closer to consumers Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 29

30 11 Dec 2012 EEE & WEEE Streams (IT): Formal vs Complementary Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 30 Reporting Complementary streams 2011: formal System 35.8% of 65% PoM Target 31.1% of 85% WG Target Role Reuse

31 11 Dec 2012 Is there a Solution? Stakeholder engagement since early stage Adapt policy options to local context Learn from existing experiences..and errors!! Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 31

32 11 Dec 2012 Find out more… United Nations University: UNU – ISP: StEP Initiative: E-Waste Academy: UNEP, Sustainable Innovation and Technology Transfer Industrial Sector Studies: Recycling from e-waste to Resources (2009) EPR/IPR: waste-electrical-and-electronic-weee-regulations-individual-producer-ipr- responsibility.pdfhttp://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/business-sectors/docs/w/ waste-electrical-and-electronic-weee-regulations-individual-producer-ipr- responsibility.pdf WEEE Flows: Future Flows Report (NL, 2012), Household WEEE Generated (IT, 2012) Toxics Link - International Workshop on Designing Take Back Systems for E-waste 32


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