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Section 1-Jacksonian America Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1-Jacksonian America Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Section 1-Jacksonian America

3 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Explain how Jacksons background influenced his ideas of democratic government. Describe how the nullification crisis sparked debate over states rights. Section 1: Jacksonian Era

5 Why It Matters Reform was a key theme of the 1830s and 1840s. Political reform came with the growth of popular democracy. President Jacksons election symbolized the new power of common citizens. For many Americans, social or religious reform was a goal. Some wanted to end slavery. Others wanted to expand education or womens rights. Throughout this period, sectional rivalries grew more bitter.

6 The Impact Today Social and political ideals born in this period became important American values. Many Americans value education highly and believe that anyone, regardless of background, might rise to a high political office if they have a good education. The desire to help others inspires many Americans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

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9 Guide to Reading The election of Andrew Jackson ushered in a new era of American politics. spoils system Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Key Terms and Names caucus system Tariff of Abominations secede John C. Calhoun nullification Daniel Webster Force Bill Indian Removal Act Trail of Tears Panic of 1837

10 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Organizing As you read about Andrew Jacksons administration, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 266 of your textbook by listing the positions of Jackson and Calhoun during the nullification crisis. Explain how Jacksons background influenced his ideas of democratic government. Reading Objectives Describe how the nullification crisis sparked debate over states rights.

11 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Groups and Institutions The American political system became more democratic during the Jacksonian era.

12 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

13 A New Era in Politics Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In the early 1800s, many states eliminated property ownership as a qualification for voting. As a result, many more men gained the right to vote. At the same time, the number of urban workers who did not own property increased. As taxpayers, they demanded voting rights. (pages 266–268)

14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In the 1828 election, many of these voters elected Andrew Jackson as president. President Jackson believed in the participation of the average citizen in government. He supported the spoils system, the practice of appointing people to government jobs on the basis of party loyalty and support. A New Era in Politics (cont.) (pages 266–268)

15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. He believed that this practice extended democracy and opened up the government to average citizens. To make the political system more democratic, President Jackson supported a new way in which presidential candidates were chosen. At that time, they were chosen through the caucus system, in which congressional party members would choose the nominee. A New Era in Politics (cont.) (pages 266–268)

16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jacksons supporters replaced this system with the national nominating convention. Under this system, delegates from the states met at conventions to choose the partys presidential nominee. A New Era in Politics (cont.) (pages 266–268)

17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Nullification Crisis In the early 1800s, South Carolinas economy was weakening, and many people blamed the nations tariffs. South Carolina purchased most of its manufactured goods from England, and the high tariffs made these goods expensive. When Congress levied a new tariff in 1828– called the Tariff of Abominations by critics– South Carolina threatened to secede, or withdraw, from the Union. (pages 268–269)

18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. John C. Calhoun, the nations vice president, was torn between supporting the nations policies and supporting fellow South Carolinians. Instead of supporting secession, he proposed the idea of nullification. The idea argued that because states had created the Union, they had the right to declare a federal law null, or not valid. The Nullification Crisis (cont.) (pages 268–269)

19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The issue of nullification erupted again in 1830 in a debate between Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina and Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts on the Senate floor. Hayne defended states rights, while Webster defended the Union. President Jackson defended the Union. The Nullification Crisis (cont.) (pages 268–269)

20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After Congress passed another tariff law in 1832, South Carolina called a special convention, which declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional. Jackson considered the declaration an act of treason, and he sent a warship to Charleston. Congress passed the Force Bill, authorizing the president to use the military to enforce acts of Congress. The Nullification Crisis (cont.) (pages 268–269)

21 After Senator Henry Clay pushed through a bill that would lower tariffs within two years, South Carolina repealed its nullification of the tariff law. The Nullification Crisis (cont.) (pages 268–269)

22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Policies Toward Native Americans President Jackson supported the idea of moving all Native Americans to the Great Plains. In 1830 he supported the passage of the Indian Removal Act, which allocated funds to relocate Native Americans. Although most Native Americans resettled in the West, the Cherokee of Georgia refused. They sued the state, and the case reached the Supreme Court. (pages 269–270)

23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled for the Cherokee and ordered the state to honor their property rights. President Jackson refused to support the decision. President Martin Van Buren sent in an army to force the remaining people to move west to what is now Oklahoma. Policies Toward Native Americans (cont.) (pages 269–270)

24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Thousands of Cherokee died on the journey that became known as the Trail of Tears. Although most Americans supported the removal policy, some National Republicans and a few religious denominations condemned it. (pages 269–270) Policies Toward Native Americans (cont.)

25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson Battles the National Bank President Andrew Jackson opposed the Second Bank of the United States, regarding it as a benefit only to the wealthy. At the time, the Bank was instrumental in keeping the nations money supply stable. The Bank prevented state banks from loaning too much money by asking the state banks to redeem bank notes for gold and silver. (pages 270–271)

26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson Battles the National Bank (cont.) This helped keep inflation in check. Many western settlers who needed easy credit opposed the Banks policies. President Jackson believed the Bank was unconstitutional, even though the Supreme Court ruled otherwise. President Jackson vetoed a bill that would extend the charter of the Bank for another 20 years. (pages 270–271)

27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Jackson Battles the National Bank (cont.) During the 1832 presidential election, President Jackson opposed the Bank. Most Americans supported Jackson. Jackson viewed their support as a directive to destroy the Bank. He removed the governments deposits from the Bank, forcing it to call in its loans and stop lending. (pages 270–271)

28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. A New Party Emerges By the mid-1830s, a new political party called the Whigs formed to oppose President Jackson. Many members were former National Republicans, whose party had fallen apart. Unlike Jacksons Democrats, Whigs advocated expanding the federal government and encouraging commercial development. (pages 271–272)

29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Whigs could not settle on one presidential candidate in the 1836 election. As a result, they ran three candidates. Jacksons popularity and the nations continued economic prosperity helped Democrat Martin Van Buren win. A New Party Emerges (cont.) (pages 271–272)

30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Shortly after Van Buren took office, the country experienced an economic crisis, known as the Panic of Thousands of farmers were forced to foreclose, and unemployment soared. The Whigs saw the economic crisis as an opportunity to defeat the Democrats. A New Party Emerges (cont.) (pages 271–272)

31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In the 1840 election they nominated General William Henry Harrison for president and John Tyler, a former Democrat, for vice president. The Whig candidate defeated Van Buren. A New Party Emerges (cont.) (pages 271–272)

32 Harrison died 32 days after his inauguration, however, and Tyler then succeeded to the presidency. A New Party Emerges (cont.) (pages 271–272) Tyler actually opposed many Whig policies and sided with the Democrats who opposed issues such as the Third Bank and a higher tariff. President Tyler also faced issues with foreign countries, particularly Great Britain. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

33 The Webster-Ashburton Treaty established a firm boundary between the United States and Canada from Maine to Minnesota. A New Party Emerges (cont.) (pages 271–272)


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