Presentation on theme: "War of 1812: “tHE FORGOTTEN WAR” & “2ND AMERICAN REVOLUTION”"— Presentation transcript:
1War of 1812: “tHE FORGOTTEN WAR” & “2ND AMERICAN REVOLUTION” American Studies IMr. Jeremy R. Hampton
2Before we begin…Think about a time when you have been “stuck in the middle”What is the best way to handle it?If you stay neutral, is it easy or hard?
3bACKGROUND:America was “stuck in the middle” between Great Britain & France after American IndependenceSituation was made worse when Napoleonic Wars began in 1803American Presidents desperately tried to keep US out of Europe’s war without hurting AmericaWashington: neutralityAdams: peace treatiesJefferson: Embargos (but sided more with France/LA Purchase; angered GB)Madison: tries, but is unable to
4Causes:1. US stuck in the middle & both France & GB are upset, so they disrupt American trade…hurts pocketbooks of Americans2. GB begins to aid Native Americans resisting American expansion out west3. GB begins to humiliate American by impressing/ “kidnapping” American sailors on the high-seasOver 10,000 impressedReasons: needed sailors for Royal Navy since such bad conditions & revenge
51st PHASE OF WAR OF 1812June 18th, 1812: President James Madison asks Congress for a declaration of war upon GB and is granted the request. Begins “Mr. Madison’s War”The US was unprepared militarily:Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britain’s 800 ships.Americans disliked a draft preferred to enlist in the disorganized state militias.Financially unpreparedRevenue from import tariffs declined.Regional disagreements.
6August 16th 1812: battle of Detroit Surrender of Detroit/ Fort Mackinac.The first major battle of the War of ends in disaster for the United States when General William Hull, leading an American army of men, surrenders to British forces at Detroit without firing a shot. Hull will be courtmartialed for cowardice and sentenced to death, but the 61-year-old Revolutionary War veteran will be pardoned by President James Madison.
7August 19th, 1812: battle OF “old Ironsides” Old Ironsides Captain Isaac Hull, commanding the USS Constitution, destroys HMS Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia. British artillery fire fails to damage the Constitution's oak hull during the battle, earning the American frigate its famous nickname, "Old Ironsides."
8November 1812: invasion of Canada Americans attempt a 3-pronged attack/invasion of Canada. See map of the citiesFails miserably. Is an embarrassment for the Americans
9Sept. 10th 1813: battle of lake erie Captain Oliver Hazard Perry leads a squadron of ten ships against a British fleet of six vessels on Lake Erie. A fierce ten-hour naval battle ends with American defeat of the British, giving the United States control over Lake Erie for the duration of the war. Perry announces the American victory in a memorable dispatch to headquarters: "We have met the enemy and they are ours."
10Sept. 20th & oct. 13th: battle of Thames & Tecumseh General William Henry Harrison leads a force of 4500 Americans across the recently secured Lake Erie in pursuit of British troops forced to abandon Detroit. On 5 October, Harrison will overtake the enemy at Moravian Town to defeat the British and their Indian allies in the Battle of the Thames. Tecumseh, the Shawnee leader of the Pan-Indian confederation earlier defeated at Tippecanoe, will be killed in the battle, leading many of Britain's Indian allies to abandon the alliance.
11March 1814: battle OF HORSESHOE BEND American general, Andrew Jackson, “Old Hickory” defeats the British & the Creek Indians in the Mississippi TerritoryThe victory discourages other Natives from allying with the British and makes Andrew Jackson a key-figure in the war
12May 1814: Napoleon Abdicates Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor of France, abdicates or gives up the throne after his humiliating defeat in the last battle of the Napoleonic Wars. The Napoleonic Wars end with the signing of a peace treaty between France and the European coalition of Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria.Great Britain can now focus solely on the war against AmericaKing George III of England desperately seeks to recover the American Colonies and sees his chance
13June 1814: great Britain attacks King George III orders an ambitious, 3 prong attack of America: Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay, & Mouth of MS River
14August 1814: capture of the capital British forces capture Washington, D.C. The White House, the Capitol, and executive department offices are burned. Secretary of War John Armstrong, blamed for the poor planning and intelligence that left America's capital poorly defended, is forced to resign.James Madison & Dolly Madison barely escape.Dolly Madison saves portrait of George Washington
20Legacy of the war of 18121. US proved itself to the world and especially, GBWorthy of being an independent RepublicCan compete against the most powerful2. Increased American patriotism, pride, & nationalismNew Heroes: Jackson, Madison, Monroe, Clay, Calhoun, Polk, & Harrison3. Increased American manufacturing & economic power. Advancements of the Industrial Revolution in America4. Ushered in an idea of a “Manifest Destiny” & increased power
21REVIEW TIME!!! Causes of the war? 1st Phase of the War? Battle of Fort McHenry/2nd Phase of War?Treaty of Ghent?Battle of New Orleans?Legacy of the War of 1812?