Presentation on theme: "Ch. 6, Sect. 4 War of 1812 1.Baltimore was targeted by the British (before/after) Washington DC was attacked. 2.T _____________ organized a pan-Indian."— Presentation transcript:
1.Baltimore was targeted by the British (before/after) Washington DC was attacked. 2.T _____________ organized a pan-Indian alliance thought fought on the side of the British. 3.Jeffersons embargo was unsuccessful in every aspect, except that it encouraged the growth of American i ___________ in the long run. 4.President M __________ declares war on Britain. 5.The Orders in Council were meant to destroy the economy of ____________.
1.The Treaty of G ________________ is negotiated, declaring an end to the fighting. 2.The treaty was really only an a _______, an agreement to end the fighting. 3.Andrew _____________ of Tennessee is the hero of New Orleans and the Battle of Horseshoe Creek. 4.Oliver Hazard P ______ led the US Navy to victory on Lake Erie. 5.The USS Constitution is nicknamed Old _________ based on its performance during the war of 1812.
1.The Treaty of G ______ that ended the war did not resolve any of the major issues. 2.The Treaty of G ________________ is negotiated, declaring an end to the fighting. 3.The treaty was really only an a _______, an agreement to end the fighting. 4.Andrew _____________ of Tennessee is the hero of New Orleans and the Battle of Horseshoe Creek. 5.Gen Andrew ___________ led US troops to victory at New Orleans. 6.Oliver Hazard Perry led the US Navy to victory on Lake E ______. 7.Oliver Hazard P ______ led the US Navy to victory on Lake Erie. 8.The USS Constitution is nicknamed Old _________ based on its performance during the war of 1812. 9.In 1807 the British warship the Leopard fired on the US warship the C _______________. 10.The Shawnee chief T _______ led an alliance of Native Americans that supported Britain. 11.In 1814 the British captured and burned the city of __________. 12.Baltimore was targeted by the British (before/after) Washington DC was attacked. 13.T _____________ organized a pan-Indian alliance thought fought on the side of the British. 14.Gen. William Henry H _______ defeated the Native Americans in the Indiana Territory at the Battle of Tippecanoe. 15.Pres. Jefferson declared an e _______ to try to keep the US out of war with England and France. 16.Jeffersons embargo was unsuccessful in every aspect, except that it encouraged the growth of American i ___________ in the long run. 17.President M __________ declares war on Britain. 18.Britain sparked American anger by seizing Americans and forcibly drafting, or imp __________ them into the British navy. 19.Britain attempts to b ____________ Europe with the Orders in Council. 20.The Orders in Council were meant to destroy the economy of ____________.
Jeffersons Second Term: 1804-1808 1804: Jefferson wins Electoral College, 162 to 14 1805: France and Britain at it again! Battles of Austerlitz & Trafalgar change balance of power in Europe and at sea. 1806: London issues Orders in Council – an attempt to blockade the French. American merchants caught in middle 1807: USS Chesapeake attacked 10 miles off VA by GB 1808-1811: 6,000 Americans impressed by G.B. Will it mean war?
Jeffersons Embargo SITUATION: US merchants marine is victim to both France and Britain, Americans calling for war PROBLEM: Jefferson has a weak army, no navy (his own fault, too) SOLUTION: Embargo Act of 1807 RESULT: West and NE are devastated economically, smuggling takes off, Embargo repealed 1809, except for w/ England & France. Republicans popularity plummets, Federalists are revived. Still no Navy!!!
Jeffersons Embargo Was it a success, or failure? Think of: Impact on England Impact on Republicans & Federalists Influence of New Englands Economy Development of Industry in US
Western War Hawks 1811: Twelfth Congress moves toward war Henry Clay of Kentucky (Speaker of the House) & John Calhoun of South Carolina lead call for war Western Reps call for Free Trade and Sailors Rights, eagerly eye free land in British Canada, battle cry is On to Canada War Hawks see British support for Indian threat on Frontier William Henry Harrison persuades native chiefs in Indiana to cede 3 million acres – angers other tribes
Tecumseh and the Prophet Tecumseh and the Prophet create a pan-Indian alliance They revitalize Indian culture and ways They refuse to recognize land deals Gen. Harrison destroys Tippecanoe Nov. 7, 1811 Form an alliance with British in War of 1812 Tecumseh killed at Battle of Thames, 1813 Andrew Jackson defeats Creeks at Battle of Horseshoe Bend Indian alliance collapses without Tecumseh
WAR!!! War Hawks engineer vote for war, 79 to 49 in House, 19 to 13 in Senate Vote shows growing sectionalism IRONY: London repealed Orders in Council 2 days before war vote New England violently opposed to war with England - Secession is a real threat. US enters the war unnecessarily and un-united
Second War for Independence: War of 1812 A Bad Idea, Poorly Executed America has no army, no navy New England (maritime states) oppose the war British and Canadians are ready to fight Americans have no strategy for Canada (forget the lessons of Montreal in the Fr. & Indian War) 1813 American invasions of Canada fail
Battle for Lake Erie In short, our victory was due to our heavy metal. -Theodore Roosevelt Perry has more ships and more carronades –so he needs to get close and fight ship to ship. His second and command, inexplicably, fails to engage. Perrys flagship is destroyed and he rows, under heavy fire, to a second, smaller ship. He continues the fight and the British surrender. This puts all the British forts along the Great Lakes in peril.
Oliver Hazard Perry has some success on Lake Erie British forced to withdraw from Detroit, leading to Battle of the Thames Oct. 1813 British return in 1814, with 4,000 troops Washington DC is burned August 1814 Baltimore is attacked next, important port for privateers Ft. McHenry holds, Star Spangled Banner
http://www.historycentral.com/1812/baltimore.html Battle of Baltimore,
Battle for Baltimore 9/12/1814: British first attack overland from North Point (near Key Bridge today). MD militia successfully delays British marines. Col. Ross, their commander is shot off his horse by two Baltimore teenagers (Henry McComas and Daniel Wells.British withdraw. http://www.pattersonpark.com/Park%20Information/rodgersbastion.html 9/13/1814: 2 nd attempt: Battle for Hampstead Hill and try again. Commodore John Rodgers, USN led 12,000 men in fighting off British, using 100 cannon on site of Pagoda in Patterson Park today. British Navy held at bay by Ft. McHenry and chained and sunken ships in inner harbor. British give up and retreat. Star Spangled Banner
War at Sea SUMMARY: Americans win the battles, But lose the war at sea Americans fight better ship for ship American ships are stronger, crews better, handled better by captains YET, British superiority in sheer #s allow for a blockade that strangles American shipping, fishing, even banking (no customs or tariffs collected)
Old Ironsides COMPARATIVE FORCE. Tons. Guns. Broad-side. Men. Loss. Constitution15762768445614 Guerrière13382555627279 http://www.ecst.csuchico.edu/~beej/constguerr.html The British commander should not have engaged. He was at a disadvantage. The loss of the Guerriere to the Constitution was a huge humiliation to Britain. In the last two decades the British had NEVER lost as ship. This, probably more than any other battle, cemented the US as a world power because it could now project power beyond its borders. http://www.ussconstitution.navy.mil/VirtualTour.htm
Jackson wins Battle of Horseshoe Bend against the Creek Next he fights Battle of New Orleans, last campaign of war Andrew Jackson's 5,600 troopsincluding 2 companies of African American volunteers from New Orleans--defeat 8,000 better-trained British troops in January of 1815, 2K British lost in 30 min, Americans lose 70+. The battle made Andrew Jackson a national hero, esp. in West and on the frontier. Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, artist unknown
Treaty of Ghent, 1814 SAD IRONY: Signed 2 weeks before Battle for New Orleans Armistice signed Christmas Eve 1814. ORCHESTRATED by Tsar Alexander I, Russia b/c of Napoleons advances, needs England out of war w/ US NEGOTIATED IN IGNORANCE by both sides. English think they are winning the war, but news of Battles in NY and Baltimore, along with events in Europe, pressure GB to come to terms. MYTH: Americans credit Battle of New Orleans with winning the war. TRUTH: More like a draw.
War of 1812 - The Scorecard 6,000 Americans killed or wounded New respect for America abroad Sectionalism and Federalist Party defunct U.S. is now has a NATIONAL IDENTY Andrew Jackson & William Henry Harrison heroes Revives antagonism with Britain Establishes a border with Canada, wary peace Oregon Territory shared by Britain and U.S.