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C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to 1877 1 FORMING A GOVERNMENT (1771–1791) Section 1: The Articles of Confederation Section.

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Presentation on theme: "C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to 1877 1 FORMING A GOVERNMENT (1771–1791) Section 1: The Articles of Confederation Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to FORMING A GOVERNMENT (1771–1791) Section 1: The Articles of Confederation Section 2: Problems in the New Nation Section 3: The Constitution Section 4: Ratification of the Constitution Chapter 8

2 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to OBJECTIVES What ideas and documents shaped American beliefs about government? What ideas and documents shaped American beliefs about government? How did state constitutions contribute to the development of representative government? How did state constitutions contribute to the development of representative government? What powers did the central government have under the Articles of Confederation? What powers did the central government have under the Articles of Confederation? What did the Northwest Ordinance accomplish? What did the Northwest Ordinance accomplish? Section 1: The Articles of Confederation

3 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to American Ideas and Documents About Government Magna Carta (1215) and English Bill of Rights (1689) Magna Carta (1215) and English Bill of Rights (1689) The Enlightenment – the use of reason and expressed a belief in human goodness The Enlightenment – the use of reason and expressed a belief in human goodness Town meetings and Virginia House of Burgesses Town meetings and Virginia House of Burgesses Great Awakening – a widespread Christian movement that emphasized faith in God Great Awakening – a widespread Christian movement that emphasized faith in God Mayflower Compact Mayflower Compact Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Section 1: The Articles of Confederation

4 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to The State Constitutions Influence created a republic and limited government created a republic and limited government protected individual rights of citizens protected individual rights of citizens supported separation of church and state supported separation of church and state expanded suffrage expanded suffrage Section 1: The Articles of Confederation

5 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to Powers of Government under The Articles of Confederation could make coins and borrow money could make coins and borrow money could negotiate and make treaties could negotiate and make treaties could settle conflicts between states could settle conflicts between states could ask states for money and soldiers could ask states for money and soldiers Section 1: The Articles of Confederation

6 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to The Northwest Ordinance created the Northwest territory created the Northwest territory created a system for bringing new states into the union created a system for bringing new states into the union included a bill of rights included a bill of rights provided for education provided for education banned slavery banned slavery Section 1: The Articles of Confederation

7 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to OBJECTIVES How did other nations treat the new government of the United States? How did other nations treat the new government of the United States? What economic problems arose under the Articles of Confederation? What economic problems arose under the Articles of Confederation? What were the causes and consequences of Shays Rebellion? What were the causes and consequences of Shays Rebellion? Section 2: Problems in the New Nation

8 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to A Lack of Respect Foreign governments treated the new government of the U.S. with a lack of respect. Foreign governments treated the new government of the U.S. with a lack of respect. The government was viewed as being weak and powerless. The government was viewed as being weak and powerless. Section 2: Problems in the New Nation

9 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to Economic Problems under the Articles of Confederation international trade issues international trade issues domestic problems domestic problems unequal exports and imports unequal exports and imports no power to pass tariffs nor regulate interstate commerce no power to pass tariffs nor regulate interstate commerce inflation and depression inflation and depression Section 2: Problems in the New Nation

10 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to Causes of Shays Rebellion: high taxes high taxes heavy debt heavy debt farm foreclosures farm foreclosures imprisonment for debt imprisonment for debt Consequences of Shays Rebellion: revolt revolt demand for a stronger central government demand for a stronger central government Section 2: Problems in the New Nation

11 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to OBJECTIVES Why did the delegates meet for the Constitutional Convention? Why did the delegates meet for the Constitutional Convention? What were some of the main issues debated and compromises reached at the Constitutional Convention? What were some of the main issues debated and compromises reached at the Constitutional Convention? How is the federal government balanced under the U.S. Constitution? How is the federal government balanced under the U.S. Constitution? Section 3: The Constitution

12 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to Constitutional Convention The delegates met at the Constitutional Convention to improve the Articles of Confederation. Section 3: The Constitution

13 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to Issues Debated at the Constitutional Convention representation representation slavery slavery economy economy powers of the government powers of the government Virginia Plan Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan New Jersey Plan Section 3: The Constitution

14 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to Compromises Reached at the Constitutional Convention The Great Compromise (1787) The Great Compromise (1787) Three-Fifths Compromise (1787) Three-Fifths Compromise (1787) Section 3: The Constitution The Great Compromise (1787) – an agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention establishing that a states population would determine representation in the lower house of the legislature, while each state would have equal representation in the upper house of the legislature

15 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to Constitutional Balance of the Federal Government federalism – system of government in which power is distributed between the central authority and individual states federalism – system of government in which power is distributed between the central authority and individual states legislative, executive, and judicial branches legislative, executive, and judicial branches checks and balances checks and balances Section 3: The Constitution

16 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to OBJECTIVES Why were some people against the new Constitution? Why were some people against the new Constitution? What arguments for the Constitution did the Federalist Papers present? What arguments for the Constitution did the Federalist Papers present? When and how was the Constitution ratified? When and how was the Constitution ratified? Why did some people want a bill of rights, and how was it added to the Constitution? Why did some people want a bill of rights, and how was it added to the Constitution? Section 4: Ratification of the Constitution

17 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to Antifederalists believed the constitutional convention: had gone too far in creating a new government had gone too far in creating a new government gave too much power to the central government gave too much power to the central government excluded a bill of rights excluded a bill of rights Section 4: Ratification of the Constitution

18 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to The Federalist Papers Support the Constitution The Federalist Papers argued that the federal government would not overpower the states the federal government would not overpower the states no one group would control the government no one group would control the government Section 4: Ratification of the Constitution

19 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to The Constitution The constitution went into effect in June 1788 when New Hampshire, the ninth necessary state, ratified it. Section 4: Ratification of the Constitution

20 C ALL TO F REEDOM HOLT HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Beginnings to Demanding A Bill of Rights Many Antifederalists did not think that the Constitution would protect personal freedoms. Many Antifederalists did not think that the Constitution would protect personal freedoms. The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution through the amendment process. The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution through the amendment process. Section 4: Ratification of the Constitution


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