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Progressivism. Unifying Themes Progressivism drew from deep roots in American communities, & spread to become a national movement. Progressives expressed.

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Presentation on theme: "Progressivism. Unifying Themes Progressivism drew from deep roots in American communities, & spread to become a national movement. Progressives expressed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Progressivism

2 Unifying Themes Progressivism drew from deep roots in American communities, & spread to become a national movement. Progressives expressed American fears of the growing concentration of power and the excesses of industrial capitalism and urban growth. Progressives rejected older Social Darwinist assumptions in favor of the idea that government should intervene to address social problems. Progressives drew upon evangelical Protestantism, especially the Social Gospel movement, and a scientific attitude to promote social change.

3 Standardizing Education For many Progressives, the school was the key agency to break down the parochial ethnic neighborhood and Americanize immigrants. Expansion and bureaucratization characterized educational development, as students started earlier & stayed later in school. High schools evolved as comprehensive institutions that offered college preparatory and vocational education.

4 New Journalism A new breed of investigative journalists began exposing the plight of slum life to the public. What were they called? published accounts of urban poverty, unsafe labor conditions, as well as corruption in government and business. Upton Sinclairs book called what? exposed the unsanitary conditions in Chicagos meat- packing industry. Muckraking mobilized national opinion.

5 New Journalism: Muckraking A new breed of investigative journalists began exposing the plight of slum life to the public. Muckrakers published accounts of urban poverty, unsafe labor conditions, as well as corruption in government and business. Upton Sinclairs book called what? exposed the unsanitary conditions in Chicagos meat- packing industry. Muckraking mobilized national opinion.

6 New Journalism: Muckraking A new breed of investigative journalists began exposing the plight of slum life to the public. Muckrakers published accounts of urban poverty, unsafe labor conditions, as well as corruption in government and business. Upton Sinclairs The Jungle exposed the unsanitary conditions in Chicagos meat- packing industry. Muckraking mobilized national opinion.

7 Progressivism in the Statehouse Governor and then Senator Battlin Bob who? of Wisconsin forged a farmer-labor- small business alliance to push through statewide reforms. Many states (not all) passed referendum and initiative amendments that allowed voters to bypass legislatures and enact laws themselves.

8 Progressivism in the Statehouse Governor and then Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin forged a farmer-labor- small business alliance to push through statewide reforms. Many states (not all) passed referendum and initiative amendments that allowed voters to bypass legislatures and enact laws themselves.

9 Progressivism in the Statehouse Initiative: A bill is originated by a petition signed and submitted by voters; then voters get to decide whether to pass it into law. Referendum: Voters vote yea or nay on a bill that has already been submitted to (and possibly passed by) the legislature.

10 Progressivism in the Statehouse Recall: Voters submit a petition to have an opportunity to vote an official out of office before his or her term has formally expired. A third new power is given to voters in some states.

11 Theodore Roosevelt and Presidential Activism Teddy Roosevelt viewed the presidency as a bully pulpit to promote progressive reforms. He pressured mine owners into a settlement that won better pay for miners. He directed the Justice Department to prosecute a number of unpopular monopolies, actions that won him the label trust-buster. Roosevelt favored the passage of regulatory laws: the Hepburn Act, which strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission. the Pure Food and Drug Act.

12 Conservation, Preservation, and the Environment Roosevelt founded the US Forest Service and supported the conservation efforts of Gifford Pinchot and John Muir, the founder of the modern environmental movement.

13 Republican Split In his second term, Roosevelt announced his Square Deal program as a way to stave off radicalism through Progressive reform. His Republican successor, who?, supported some of his reforms. He alienated many Progressives. Roosevelt challenged him for Republican leadership in 1912.

14 Republican Split In his second term, Roosevelt announced his Square Deal program as a way to stave off radicalism through Progressive reform. His Republican successor, William Howard Taft, supported some of his reforms. Taft alienated many Progressives. Roosevelt challenged Taft for Republican leadership in 1912.

15 The Election of 1912 In 1912, Roosevelt ran against Taft for president on the new What Party? ticket, touting his New Nationalism program. Democrats ran a Progressive candidate, NJ Gov. who?, who promoted his New Freedom platform. The Socialist Party, which had grown rapidly in strength, nominated Eugene V. Debs. The Dems won 42 percent of the vote, enough to defeat the divided Republicans.

16 The Election of 1912 In 1912, Roosevelt ran against Taft for president on the new Progressive (Bull Moose) Party ticket, touting his New Nationalism program. Democrats ran a Progressive candidate, NJ Gov. who?, who promoted his New Freedom platform. The Socialist Party, which had grown rapidly in strength, nominated Eugene V. Debs. The Dems won 42 percent of the vote, enough to defeat the divided Republicans.

17 The Election of 1912 In 1912, Roosevelt ran against Taft for president on the new Progressive (Bull Moose) Party ticket, touting his New Nationalism program. Democrats ran a Progressive candidate, NJ Gov. Woodrow Wilson, who promoted a New Freedom platform. The Socialist Party, which had grown rapidly in strength, nominated Eugene V. Debs. Wilson won 42 percent of the vote, enough to defeat the divided Republicans.enough

18 Woodrow Wilsons First Term Wilson followed Roosevelts lead in promoting an activist government by Wilson followed Roosevelts lead – Implementing a graduated income tax amendment (Sixteenth Amendment, ratified a month before his inauguration) – Lowering tariffs (Underwood-Simmons Tariff, October 1913) – Restructuring the banking and currency system under the Federal Reserve Act (December 1913) – Establishing the Federal Trade Commission. (September 1914) – Expanding the national governments antitrust authority (Clayton Antitrust Act, October 1914) On social reform, Wilson proved more cautious.

19 The Progressive Amendments Sixteenth: Graduated Income Tax (1913) Seventeenth: Direct Election of Senators (1913) Eighteenth: Prohibition (1919) - The only amendment to be repealed later - The only amendment that took rights away Nineteenth: Votes for Women (1920)

20 The Prohibition Movement Many middle-class Progressives worried about the increased numbers of urban immigrants and sought methods of social control. Temperance groups like the Womens Christian Temperance Union and the Anti-Saloon League pushed for restrictions or bans on alcohol. Native-born small-town and rural Protestants generally supported prohibition. Recent immigrants, city dwellers, and Catholics generally opposed it.


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