Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles of Operations Management, 7e Operations Management, 9e Some additions and deletions have been made by Ömer Yağız to this slide set. (Revised February 2012)

2 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 2 Some real life scenarios which I used in the past to highlight the importance of Operations Management fortunately, some of these scenarios are no more validfortunately, some of these scenarios are no more valid many improvements have been realized both in the public and private sectormany improvements have been realized both in the public and private sector improvement, or, to be exact, is the right approach to increasing quality, efficiency, productivity, and profitability.improvement, or continuous improvement, to be exact, is the right approach to increasing quality, efficiency, productivity, and profitability.

3 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 3 Some Real Life Scenarios in OM Many of us have witnessed the agony and the suffering (and even deaths) that many senior citizens have had to endure in order to collect their retirement or pension pay from the various commercial banks. This was an episode that repeated every month or every three months, especially in large urban centers. The government organizations and the banks involved in this service process unfortunately did nothing for a long time to improve the situation and increase the quality of this rather routine service (now the situation is a little better)

4 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 4 SOME REAL-LIFE SCENARIOS IN OM You mail a letter by Express Post (APS) to an address in İstanbul. The recipient gets it after 3 days; whereas a package sent to İstanbul via Yurtiçi Kargo (or any of the others) is in the hands of the addressee in 6 hours. Plus, order tracking on Google Earth! QUALITY OF SERVICE? You buy a shirt from an expensive store and pay lots of money; the buttons come off after the shirt is worn three times. The manufacturer has to really make a special(!) effort to achieve this terrible quality. Some Real Life Scenarios in OM

5 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 5 A THY plane takes off 40 minutes late from an airport because some Japanese tourists on board forget to identify their baggage before boarding the plane. The plane flies from İstanbul to Ankara in 50 minutes. 40 minutes delay for a 50 minute flight !! HOW DO WE EXPLAIN THIS IN TERMS OF EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND PROFITABILITY ? (This has been rectified some time ago by the elimination of baggage identification prior to boarding.) Some Real Life Scenarios in OM

6 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 6 A real episode at Esenboğa on Feb. 6, 2012 Esenboğa Airport, two weeks ago Esenboğa Airport, two weeks ago lots of delays and cancellations due to snow and winter conditions lots of delays and cancellations due to snow and winter conditions an operations managers nightmare (kâbus) an operations managers nightmare (kâbus) unhappy and angry passengers unhappy and angry passengers THY and TGS service personnel in a very difficult (and unenviable) position THY and TGS service personnel in a very difficult (and unenviable) position

7 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 7 A real episode at Esenboğa on Feb. 6, 2012 This serious situation had a very happy ending for the passengers and service personnel. HOW? This serious situation had a very happy ending for the passengers and service personnel. HOW? full and timely information given to passengers face-to-face and via electronic boardsfull and timely information given to passengers face-to-face and via electronic boards effective and timely catering service to passengers at the gateseffective and timely catering service to passengers at the gates very courteous, understanding and helpful attitude by the ground service personnel towards the passengersvery courteous, understanding and helpful attitude by the ground service personnel towards the passengers nobody had the courage to complain and/or say something bad about the situation, including myself..nobody had the courage to complain and/or say something bad about the situation, including myself..

8 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 8 Why do some people prefer McDonalds or similar fast-food restaurants despite the fact that it they are more expensive than comparable food served elsewhere? The same is true for Varan and Ulusoy bus companies.. When you go to some government office (say, the Tax Bureau) you spend so much you feel terribly exhausted after a very routine task. Is the whole process designed to maximize pain to citizens ? Now, things are a bit different; next slide… Some Real Life Scenarios in OM

9 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 9 Things are better at the Tax Bureau Things are better at the Tax Bureau attitude change on the part of personnel (civil servant concept)attitude change on the part of personnel (civil servant concept) technology in general, IT in particular, makes the whole process easier, less time- consuming, more efficient, and less costlytechnology in general, IT in particular, makes the whole process easier, less time- consuming, more efficient, and less costly errors are minimizederrors are minimized personnel assist those in need of help for filling out forms, etc.personnel assist those in need of help for filling out forms, etc. they even offer you free tea at the Hitit Vergi Dairesi..they even offer you free tea at the Hitit Vergi Dairesi.. Some Real Life Scenarios in OM

10 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 10 Things are also better at Çankaya Kaymakamlığı.. Things are also better at Çankaya Kaymakamlığı.. Apostille service unitApostille service unit 1.5 TL per apostille charged1.5 TL per apostille charged 2 X 1.5 TL = 3.00 TL2 X 1.5 TL = 3.00 TL a 3-ply receipt costs 3.00 TLa 3-ply receipt costs 3.00 TL no charge for 2 or less apostilles; 3 or more apostilles charged at the rate of 1.50 TL per apostilleno charge for 2 or less apostilles; 3 or more apostilles charged at the rate of 1.50 TL per apostille amazingly clever practice by a public organization!! Olamaz, rüya mı bu?amazingly clever practice by a public organization!! Olamaz, rüya mı bu? Some Real Life Scenarios in OM

11 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 11 During registration periods at many universities, poor students have to report to so many different offices and people, and have to wait so long in several lines. Not only the students but also instructors and administrators have to go through the same unpleasant experience. Indeed, we are a society of endless waiting lines! IS THIS SOMETHING ORDAINED BY GOD OR WHAT ?? (Now with online registration, the situation has improved somewhat) Some Real Life Scenarios in OM

12 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 12 Outline Global Company Profile: Hard Rock Cafe Global Company Profile: Hard Rock Cafe What Is Operations Management? What Is Operations Management? Organizing to Produce Goods and Services Organizing to Produce Goods and Services Why Study OM? Why Study OM? What Operations Managers Do What Operations Managers Do How This Book Is Organized How This Book Is Organized

13 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 13 Outline - Continued The f Operations Management The Heritage of Operations Management Operations in the Service Sector Operations in the Service Sector Differences between Goods and Services Differences between Goods and Services Growth of Services Growth of Services Service Pay Service Pay Exciting New Trends in Operations Management Exciting New Trends in Operations Management

14 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 14 Outline - Continued The Productivity Challenge The Productivity Challenge Productivity Measurement Productivity Measurement Productivity Variables Productivity Variables Productivity and the Service Sector Productivity and the Service Sector Ethics and Social Responsibility Ethics and Social Responsibility

15 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 15 Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: 1.Define operations management 2.Explain the distinction between goods and services 3.Explain the difference between production and productivity

16 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 16 Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: 4.Compute single-factor productivity 5.Compute multifactor productivity 6.Identify the critical variables in enhancing productivity

17 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 17 The Hard Rock Cafe First opened in 1971 First opened in 1971 Now – 121 restaurants in over 40 countries Now – 121 restaurants in over 40 countries Rock music memorabilia Rock music memorabilia Creates value in the form of good food and entertainment Creates value in the form of good food and entertainment 3,500 + custom meals per day in Orlando 3,500 + custom meals per day in Orlando How does an item get on the menu? How does an item get on the menu? Role of the Operations Manager Role of the Operations Manager

18 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 18 Köfteci Ramiz

19 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 19 DO & CO Catering

20 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 20 What Is Operations Management? Production is the creation of goods and services Operations management (OM) is the set of activities that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs

21 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 21 OM Involves Managing Transformations OM Involves Managing Transformations Input Output People Plants Parts Processes Planning and Control Transformation Process (Value Adding) Transformation is enabled by The 5 Ps of OM:

22 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 22Transformations Physical and chemical--manufacturing (shoes, PCs, planes, paint, detergents)Physical and chemical--manufacturing (shoes, PCs, planes, paint, detergents) Locational--transportation (rail, sea, air, road)Locational--transportation (rail, sea, air, road) Exchange--retailing (all kinds of stores, offices), banking ??Exchange--retailing (all kinds of stores, offices), banking ?? Storage--warehousing (normal and cold storage)Storage--warehousing (normal and cold storage) Physiological--health care (hospitals, clinics)Physiological--health care (hospitals, clinics) Informational--telecommunications (schools, Reuter Services, Internet and blogs, news media, TV services, METU)Informational--telecommunications (schools, Reuter Services, Internet and blogs, news media, TV services, METU)

23 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 23 Operations as the Technical Core Operations Finance Capital Markets, Stockholders Marketing Customers Workers Suppliers Purchasing Personnel

24 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 24 Organizing to Produce Goods and Services Essential functions: Essential functions: Marketing – generates demand Marketing – generates demand Production/operations – creates the product Production/operations – creates the product Finance/accounting – tracks how well the organization is doing, pays bills, collects the money Finance/accounting – tracks how well the organization is doing, pays bills, collects the money

25 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 25 Organizational Charts Operations Teller Scheduling Check Clearing Collection Transaction processing Facilities design/layout Vault operations Maintenance Security Finance Investments Security Real estate Accounting Auditing Marketing Loans Commercial Industrial Financial Personal Mortgage Trust Department Commercial Bank Figure 1.1(A)

26 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 26 Organizational Charts Operations Ground support equipment Maintenance Ground Operations Facility maintenance Catering Flight Operations Crew scheduling Flying Communications Dispatching Management science Finance/ accounting Accounting Payables Receivables General Ledger Finance Cash control International exchange Airline Figure 1.1(B) Marketing Traffic administration Reservations Schedules Tariffs (pricing) Sales Advertising

27 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 27 Marketing Sales promotion Advertising Sales Market research Organizational Charts Operations Facilities Construction; maintenance Production and inventory control Scheduling; materials control Quality assurance and control Supply chain management Manufacturing Tooling; fabrication; assembly Design Product development and design Detailed product specifications Industrial engineering Efficient use of machines, space, and personnel Process analysis Development and installation of production tools and equipment Finance/ accounting Disbursements/ credits Receivables Payables General ledger Funds Management Money market International exchange Capital requirements Stock issue Bond issue and recall Manufacturing Figure 1.1(C)

28 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 28 Why Study OM? OM is one of three major functions (marketing, finance, and operations) of any organization OM is one of three major functions (marketing, finance, and operations) of any organization We want (and need) to know how goods and services are produced We want (and need) to know how goods and services are produced We want to understand what operations managers do We want to understand what operations managers do OM is such a costly part of an organization OM is such a costly part of an organization

29 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 29 Options for Increasing Contribution Sales$100,000$150,000$100,000$100,000 Cost of Goods – 80,000– 120,000– 80,000– 64,000 Gross Margin20,00030,00020,00036,000 Finance Costs– 6,000 – 6,000– 3,000– 6,000 Subtotal14,00024,00017,00030,000 Taxes at 25%– 3,500– 6,000– 4,250– 7,500 Contribution$ 10,500$ 18,000$ 12,750$ 22,500 Finance/ MarketingAccountingOM OptionOptionOption IncreaseReduceReduce SalesFinanceProduction CurrentRevenue 50%Costs 50%Costs 20% Increase in contribution 71% 21% 114%

30 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 30 What Operations Managers Do Planning Planning Organizing Organizing Staffing Staffing Leading Leading Controlling Controlling Basic Management Functions

31 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 31 Ten Critical Decisions Ten Decision AreasChapter(s) Design of goods and services5 Design of goods and services5 Managing quality6, Supplement 6 Managing quality6, Supplement 6 Process and capacity 7, Supplement 7 design Process and capacity 7, Supplement 7 design Location strategy8 Location strategy8 Layout strategy9 Layout strategy9 Human resources and 10, Supplement 10 job design Human resources and 10, Supplement 10 job design Supply chain 11, Supplement 11 management Supply chain 11, Supplement 11 management Inventory management12, 14, 16 Inventory management12, 14, 16 Scheduling13, 15 Scheduling13, 15 Maintenance17 Maintenance17 Table 1.2

32 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 32 The Critical Decisions Design of goods and services Design of goods and services What good or service should we offer? What good or service should we offer? How should we design these products and services? How should we design these products and services? Managing quality Managing quality How do we define quality? How do we define quality? Who is responsible for quality? Who is responsible for quality? Table 1.2 (cont.)

33 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 33 The Critical Decisions Process and capacity design Process and capacity design What process and what capacity will these products require? What process and what capacity will these products require? What equipment and technology is necessary for these processes? What equipment and technology is necessary for these processes? Location strategy Location strategy Where should we put the facility? Where should we put the facility? On what criteria should we base the location decision? On what criteria should we base the location decision? Table 1.2 (cont.)

34 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 34 The Critical Decisions Layout strategy Layout strategy How should we arrange the facility? How should we arrange the facility? How large must the facility be to meet our plan? How large must the facility be to meet our plan? Human resources and job design Human resources and job design How do we provide a reasonable work environment? How do we provide a reasonable work environment? How much can we expect our employees to produce? How much can we expect our employees to produce? Table 1.2 (cont.)

35 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 35 The Critical Decisions Supply chain management Supply chain management Should we make or buy this component? Should we make or buy this component? Who are our suppliers and who can integrate into our e-commerce program? Who are our suppliers and who can integrate into our e-commerce program? Inventory, material requirements planning, and JIT Inventory, material requirements planning, and JIT How much inventory of each item should we have? How much inventory of each item should we have? When do we re-order? When do we re-order? Table 1.2 (cont.)

36 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 36 The Critical Decisions Intermediate and short–term scheduling Intermediate and short–term scheduling Are we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns? Are we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns? Which jobs do we perform next? Which jobs do we perform next? Maintenance Maintenance Who is responsible for maintenance? Who is responsible for maintenance? When do we do maintenance? When do we do maintenance? Table 1.2 (cont.)

37 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 37 Where are the OM Jobs? Figure 1.2

38 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 38 Where are the OM Jobs? Technology/methods Technology/methods Facilities/space utilization Facilities/space utilization Strategic issues Strategic issues Response time Response time People/team development People/team development Customer service Customer service Quality Quality Cost reduction Cost reduction Inventory reduction Inventory reduction Productivity improvement Productivity improvement

39 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 39 Significant Events in OM Figure 1.3

40 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 40 The Heritage of OM Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776; Charles Babbage 1852) Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776; Charles Babbage 1852) Interchangeable (standardized) parts (Whitney 1800) Interchangeable (standardized) parts (Whitney 1800) Scientific Management (Taylor 1881) Scientific Management (Taylor 1881) Coordinated assembly line (Ford/ Sorenson ) Coordinated assembly line (Ford/ Sorenson (93 minutes vs hours for chassis assembly)) Gantt charts (Gantt 1916) Gantt charts (Gantt 1916) Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1922) Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1922) Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming 1950) Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming 1950)

41 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 41 The Heritage of OM Electronic digital computer (Atanasoff 1938) Electronic digital computer (Atanasoff 1938) not programmable; solved linear equations not programmable; solved linear equations CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957) CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957) Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960) Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960) Computer aided design (CAD 1970) Computer aided design (CAD 1970) Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975) Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975) JIT,TQC,TQM,KANBAN, Poka Yoke (1980s) JIT,TQC,TQM,KANBAN, Poka Yoke (1980s) EFQM and Baldrige Quality Awards (1980) EFQM and Baldrige Quality Awards (1980) Computer integrated manufacturing (1990) Computer integrated manufacturing (1990) Globalization (1992) Globalization (1992) Internet (1995) Internet (1995) e-business, e-government (1996- ) e-business, e-government (1996- )

42 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 42 Eli Whitney Born 1765; died 1825 Born 1765; died 1825 In 1798, received government contract to make 10,000 muskets In 1798, received government contract to make 10,000 muskets Showed that machine tools could make standardized parts to exact specifications Showed that machine tools could make standardized parts to exact specifications Musket (tüfek) parts could be used in any musket Musket (tüfek) parts could be used in any musket

43 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 43 Frederick W. Taylor Born 1856; died 1915 Born 1856; died 1915 Known as father of scientific management Known as father of scientific management In 1881, as chief engineer for Midvale Steel, studied how tasks were done In 1881, as chief engineer for Midvale Steel, studied how tasks were done Began first motion and time studies Began first motion and time studies Created efficiency principles Created efficiency principles

44 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 44 Taylors Principles Matching employees to right job Matching employees to right job Providing the proper training Providing the proper training Providing proper work methods and tools Providing proper work methods and tools Establishing legitimate incentives for work to be accomplished Establishing legitimate incentives for work to be accomplished Management Should Take More Responsibility for:

45 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 45 Frank & Lillian Gilbreth Frank ( ); Lillian ( ) Frank ( ); Lillian ( ) Husband-and-wife engineering team Husband-and-wife engineering team Further developed work measurement methods Further developed work measurement methods Applied efficiency methods to their home and 12 children! Applied efficiency methods to their home and 12 children! Book & Movie: Cheaper by the Dozen, book: Bells on Their Toes Book & Movie: Cheaper by the Dozen, book: Bells on Their Toes

46 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 46 Born 1863; died 1947 Born 1863; died 1947 In 1903, created Ford Motor Company In 1903, created Ford Motor Company In 1913, first used moving assembly line to make Model T In 1913, first used moving assembly line to make Model T Unfinished product moved by conveyor past work station Unfinished product moved by conveyor past work station Paid workers very well for 1911 ($5/day!) Paid workers very well for 1911 ($5/day!) Henry Ford The customer can have any color as long as it is black H. Ford

47 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 47 W. Edwards Deming Born 1900; died 1993 Born 1900; died 1993 Engineer and physicist Engineer and physicist Credited with teaching Japan quality control methods in post- WW2 Credited with teaching Japan quality control methods in post- WW2 Used statistics to analyze process Used statistics to analyze process His methods involve workers in decisions His methods involve workers in decisions

48 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 48 Deming Institute:

49 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 49 Contributions From Human factors (ergonomics, fatigue studies) Human factors (ergonomics, fatigue studies) Industrial engineering Industrial engineering Management science (operations research) Management science (operations research) Biological science Biological science Physical sciences Physical sciences Information technology Information technology

50 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 50 What is Industrial Engineering ? Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, installation, and improvement of integrated systems of people, material, information, equipment and energy. Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, installation, and improvement of integrated systems of people, material, information, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. IIE Web Site -- IIE Web Site --

51 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 51 What is Operations Research ? OR/MS Professionals aim to provide rational bases for decision making by seeking to understand and structure complex situations and to use this understanding to predict system behavior and improve system performance. OR/MS Professionals aim to provide rational bases for decision making by seeking to understand and structure complex situations and to use this understanding to predict system behavior and improve system performance. Much of this work is done using analytical and numerical techniques to develop and manipulate mathematical and computer models of organizational systems composed of people, machines, and procedures.... Much of this work is done using analytical and numerical techniques to develop and manipulate mathematical and computer models of organizational systems composed of people, machines, and procedures....

52 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 52 What is Operations Research ? OR/MS draws upon ideas from engineering, management, mathematics, and psychology to contribute to a wide variety of application domains; the field is closely related to several other fields in the "decision sciences" -- applied mathematics, computer science, economics, and industrial engineering. OR/MS draws upon ideas from engineering, management, mathematics, and psychology to contribute to a wide variety of application domains; the field is closely related to several other fields in the "decision sciences" -- applied mathematics, computer science, economics, and industrial engineering. INFORMS Web Site --

53 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 53 New Challenges in OM Global focus Global focus Just-in-time Just-in-time Supply chain partnering ( keiretsu?) Supply chain partnering ( keiretsu?) Rapid product development, alliances Rapid product development, alliances Mass customization Mass customization Empowered employees, teams Empowered employees, teamsToFrom Local or national focus Local or national focus Batch shipments Batch shipments Low bid purchasing Low bid purchasing Lengthy product development Lengthy product development Standard products Standard products Job specialization Job specialization

54 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 54 Current Issues Speeding up the time it takes to get new products into production. (Concurrent engineering -- eş zamanlı mühendislik) Speeding up the time it takes to get new products into production. (Concurrent engineering -- eş zamanlı mühendislik) Developing flexible production systems to enable mass customization of products and services. (kişiye özel seri üretim; kitlesel bireyselleştirme; özelleştirme) Developing flexible production systems to enable mass customization of products and services. (kişiye özel seri üretim; kitlesel bireyselleştirme; özelleştirme) Managing global production networks. Managing global production networks. Developing and integrating new production technologies into existing production systems Developing and integrating new production technologies into existing production systems ….

55 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 55 Achieving high quality quickly and keeping it up in the face of restructuring. Achieving high quality quickly and keeping it up in the face of restructuring. Managing a diverse workforce. Managing a diverse workforce. Conforming to environmental constraints, ethical standards, and government regulations. Conforming to environmental constraints, ethical standards, and government regulations. Current Issues

56 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 56 Mass Customization (kişiye özel seri üretim) Interesting Example Panasonic Bicycles Matsushita Corp.- NBIC 21 employeees plus CAD system 18 basic models in 199 color patterns; 8 million variations Standard model - 90 min/unit; special model min/unit Price: %20-30 more than standard model Delivery time: ~ 3 weeks (Why? -- feeling of anticipation for something special!!)

57 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 57 Many computer companies now let you configure your own laptop Many computer companies now let you configure your own laptop HP HP Toshiba Toshiba Dell Dell Gateway (one of the pioneers in this area) Gateway (one of the pioneers in this area) Mass Customization (İsteğe Bağlı Seri Üretim) Interesting Example

58 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 58 Characteristics of Goods Tangible product Tangible product Consistent product definition Consistent product definition Production usually separate from consumption Production usually separate from consumption Can be inventoried Can be inventoried Low customer interaction Low customer interaction Often easy to automate Often easy to automate

59 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 59 Characteristics of Service Intangible product Intangible product Produced and consumed at same time Produced and consumed at same time Often unique Often unique High customer interaction High customer interaction Inconsistent product definition Inconsistent product definition Often knowledge- based ( education, medical, legal, etc.) Often knowledge- based ( education, medical, legal, etc.) Frequently dispersed(local office, house call, etc.) Frequently dispersed(local office, house call, etc.) Not possible or easy to automate Not possible or easy to automate

60 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 60 Goods Versus Services Table 1.3 Can be resold Can be inventoried Some aspects of quality measurable Selling is distinct from production Product is transportable Site of facility important for cost Often easy to automate Revenue generated primarily from tangible product Attributes of Goods (Tangible Product) Attributes of Services (Intangible Product) Reselling unusual Difficult to inventory Quality difficult to measure Selling is part of service Provider, not product, is often transportable Site of facility important for customer contact Often difficult to automate Revenue generated primarily from the intangible service

61 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 61 Goods and Services Automobile Computer Installed carpeting Fast-food meal Restaurant meal/auto repair Hospital care Advertising agency/ investment management Consulting service/ teaching Counseling Percent of Product that is a GoodPercent of Product that is a Service 100% % ||||||||| Figure 1.4

62 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – – – – – – – 0 0 – ||||||| (est) Employment (millions) Manufacturing and Service Employment Figure 1.5 (A) Manufacturing Service

63 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 63 Manufacturing Employment and Production Figure 1.5 (B) – – – – 0 0 – ||||||| (est) – – – – – – 25 0 – 0 Employment (millions) Index: 1997 = 100 Index: 1997 = 100 Manufacturing employment (left scale) Industrial production (right scale)

64 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 64 Development of the Service Economy Figure 1.5 (C) United States Canada France Italy Britain Japan W. Germany (est) ||||| Percent of GDP

65 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 65 Organizations in Each Sector Service Sector Example % of all Jobs Education, Legal, Medical, and other Notre Dame University, San Diego Zoo, Arnold Palmer Hospital 25.5 Trade (retail, wholesale) Walgreens, Wal-Mart, Nordstroms 15.1 Utilities, Transportation Pacific Gas & Electric, American Airlines, Santa Fe R.R., Roadway Express 5.2 Table 1.4

66 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 66 Organizations in Each Sector Service Sector Example % of all Jobs Professional and Business Services Snelling and Snelling, Waste Management, Pitney-Bowes 10.1 Finance, Information, Real Estate Citicorp, American Express, Prudential, Aetna, Trammel Crow, EDS, IBM 9.6 Food, Lodging, Entertainment Olive Garden, Hard Rock Cafe, Motel 6, Hilton Hotels, Walt Disney, Paramount Pictures 8.5 Public Administration U.S., State of Alabama, Cook County 4.6 Table 1.4

67 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 67 Organizations in Each Sector Manufacturing Sector Example % of all Jobs Manufacturing General Electric, Ford, U.S. Steel, Intel 11.5 Construction Bechtel, McDermott 7.9 Agriculture King Ranch 1.6 Mining Homestake Mining 0.4 Sector Percent of all jobs Service78.6% Manufacturing21.4% Table 1.4

68 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 68 New Trends in OM Local or national focus Reliable worldwide communication and transportation networks Global focus, moving production offshore Batch (large) shipments Short product life cycles and cost of capital put pressure on reducing inventory Just-in-time performance Low-bid purchasing Supply chain competition requires that suppliers be engaged in a focus on the end customer Supply chain partners, collaboration, alliances, outsourcing Figure 1.6 PastCausesFuture

69 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 69 New Trends in OM Lengthy product development Shorter life cycles, Internet, rapid international communication, computer- aided design, and international collaboration Rapid product development, alliances, collaborative designs Standardized products Affluence and worldwide markets; increasingly flexible production processes Mass customization with added emphasis on quality Job specialization Changing socioculture milieu; increasingly a knowledge and information society Empowered employees, teams, and lean production Figure 1.6 PastCausesFuture

70 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 70 New Trends in OM Low-cost focus Environmental issues, ISO 14000, increasing disposal costs Environmentally sensitive production, green manufacturing, recycled materials, remanufacturing Ethics not at forefront Businesses operate more openly; public and global review of ethics; opposition to child labor, bribery, pollution High ethical standards and social responsibility expected Figure 1.6 PastCausesFuture

71 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 71 Summary- New Trends in OM Global focus Global focus Just-in-time performance Just-in-time performance Supply chain partnering Supply chain partnering Rapid product development Rapid product development Mass customization Mass customization Empowered employees Empowered employees Environmentally sensitive production Environmentally sensitive production Ethics Ethics

72 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 72 Productivity Challenge Productivity is the ratio of outputs (goods and services) divided by the inputs (resources such as labor and capital) The objective is to improve productivity! Important Note! Production is a measure of output only and not a measure of efficiency

73 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 73 Feedbackloop Feedback loop Outputs Goods and servicesProcesses The U.S. economic system transforms inputs to outputs at about an annual 2.5% increase in productivity per year. The productivity increase is the result of a mix of capital (38% of 2.5%), labor (10% of 2.5%), and management (52% of 2.5%). The Economic System Inputs Labor, capital, management Figure 1.7

74 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 74 Improving Productivity at Starbucks A team of 10 analysts continually look for ways to shave time. Some improvements: Stop requiring signatures on credit card purchases under $25 Saved 8 seconds per transaction Change the size of the ice scoop Saved 14 seconds per drink New espresso machines Saved 12 seconds per shot

75 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 75 Improving Productivity at Starbucks A team of 10 analysts continually look for ways to shave time. Some improvements: Stop requiring signatures on credit card purchases under $25 Saved 8 seconds per transaction Change the size of the ice scoop Saved 14 seconds per drink New espresso machines Saved 12 seconds per shot Operations improvements have helped Starbucks increase yearly revenue per outlet by $200,000 to $940,000 in six years. Productivity has improved by 27%, or about 4.5% per year.

76 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 76 Efficiency vs. effectiveness Efficiency – doing a job with a minimum of resources and waste i.e. doing the job well. Efficiency – doing a job with a minimum of resources and waste i.e. doing the job well. Efficiency= actual output/standard output Efficiency= actual output/standard output (70pcs/hr) / (60 pcs/hr) = 1.17 Effectiveness – achieving your stated goal or purpose i.e. doing the right job. Effectiveness – achieving your stated goal or purpose i.e. doing the right job.

77 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 77 Measure of process improvement Measure of process improvement Represents output relative to input Represents output relative to input Only through productivity increases can our standard of living improve Only through productivity increases can our standard of living improve Productivity Productivity = Units produced Input used

78 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 78 Productivity Calculations Productivity = Units produced Labor-hours used = = 4 units/labor-hour 1, Labor Productivity One resource input single-factor productivity

79 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 79 Multi-Factor Productivity Output Labor + Material + Energy + Capital + Miscellaneous Productivity = Also known as total factor productivity Also known as total factor productivity Output and inputs are often expressed in dollars Output and inputs are often expressed in dollars Multiple resource inputs multi-factor productivity

80 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 80 Illustration- Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System (Non-computerized): = Old labor productivity 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs Note: Collins Title is a reinsurance company (tapu sigortası). It has set up a new computerized title search system

81 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 81 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = Old labor productivity =.25 titles/labor-hr

82 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 82 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = Old labor productivity = New labor productivity =.25 titles/labor-hr 14 titles/day 32 labor-hrs

83 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 83 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = Old labor productivity =.25 titles/labor-hr 14 titles/day 32 labor-hrs = New labor productivity =.4375 titles/labor-hr 75 % increase

84 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 84 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: = Old multifactor productivity 8 titles/day $

85 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 85 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day $ = Old multifactor productivity =.0077 titles/dollar

86 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 86 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day $ = Old multifactor productivity = New multifactor productivity =.0077 titles/dollar 14 titles/day $

87 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 87 Collins Title Productivity Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day Old System: 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day New System: 8 titles/day $ titles/day $ = Old multifactor productivity = New multifactor productivity =.0077 titles/dollar =.0097 titles/dollar 26 % increase

88 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 88 Measurement Problems Quality may change while the quantity of inputs and outputs remains constant Quality may change while the quantity of inputs and outputs remains constant External elements may cause an increase or decrease in productivity(power or gas shortages, strikes & lockouts, etc) External elements may cause an increase or decrease in productivity(power or gas shortages, strikes & lockouts, etc) Precise units of measure may be lacking (not all cars may require the same inputs– Opel Corsa vs. Porsche) Precise units of measure may be lacking (not all cars may require the same inputs– Opel Corsa vs. Porsche)

89 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 89 Productivity Variables For the U.S. economys 2.5 % annual increase Labor - contributes about 10% of the annual increase Labor - contributes about 10% of the annual increase Capital - contributes about 38% of the annual increase Capital - contributes about 38% of the annual increase Management - contributes about 52% of the annual increase Management - contributes about 52% of the annual increase

90 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 90 Key Variables for Improved Labor Productivity Basic education appropriate for the labor force Basic education appropriate for the labor force Diet of the labor force Diet of the labor force Social overhead that makes labor available (transportation, sanitation, health services, etc.) Social overhead that makes labor available (transportation, sanitation, health services, etc.) Maintaining and enhancing skills in the midst of rapidly changing technology and knowledge Maintaining and enhancing skills in the midst of rapidly changing technology and knowledge

91 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 91 Labor Skills About half of the 17-year-olds in the US cannot correctly answer questions of this type Figure 1.8

92 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 92 Investment and Productivity Percent increase in productivity Percentage investment

93 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 93 Service Productivity Typically labor intensive Typically labor intensive Frequently focused on unique individual attributes or desires Frequently focused on unique individual attributes or desires Often an intellectual task performed by professionals Often an intellectual task performed by professionals Often difficult to mechanize Often difficult to mechanize Often difficult to evaluate for quality Often difficult to evaluate for quality

94 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 94 NO COMMENT!

95 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 95 Productivity at Taco Bell Improvements: Revised the menu Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment Training and employee empowerment How about DO&CO İkram Hizmetleri A.Ş. (Airline Catering Company)?

96 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 96 Productivity at Taco Bell Improvements: Revised the menu Revised the menu Designed meals for easy preparation Designed meals for easy preparation Shifted some preparation to suppliers Shifted some preparation to suppliers Efficient layout and automation Efficient layout and automation Training and employee empowerment Training and employee empowerment Results: Preparation time of tacos cut to 8 seconds Management span of control increased from 5 to 30 In-store labor cut by 15 hours/day Stores handle twice the volume with half the labor Fast-food low-cost leader

97 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 97 Ethics and Social Responsibility Challenges facing operations managers: Developing and producing safe, quality products Developing and producing safe, quality products Maintaining a clean environment Maintaining a clean environment Providing a safe workplace Providing a safe workplace Honoring community commitments Honoring community commitments

98 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 98 Some Bestseller Books on Operations Management Porter, Michael E., The Competitive Advantage of Nations. The Free Press, Womack, James P., Jones, Daniel T., and Daniel Roos. The Machine That Changed The World: The Story of Lean Production. Harper Collins, Womack, James P., Jones, Daniel T. Lean Thinking. Simon and Schuster, 1996 Treacy, Michael and Fred Wiersema. The Discipline of Market Leaders. Addison Wesley, Halberstam, David. The Reckoning. Avon Books, 1986 Hammer, Michael and James Champy. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. Harper Collins, Hammer, Michael and Steven A. Stanton. The Reengineering Revolution Handbook. Harper Collins, 1995 Liker, Jeffrey K. The Toyota Way. McGraw-Hill, 2004.

99 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 99 Some Bestseller Books on Operations Management Pande, Peter S., Neuman, Robert P., Cavanagh, Roland R. The Six Sigma Way. McGraw-Hill 2000.

100 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 100 Some Landmark Articles on Operations Management Porter, Michael E. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Harvard Business Review (HBR), March-April Skinner, Wickham. Manufacturing - Missing Link in Corporate Strategy. HBR, May-June Skinner, Wickham. The Focused Factory. HBR, May-June Wheelwright, Steven C. and Robert H. Hayes. Competing Through Manufacturing. HBR, January-February Hayes, Robert H. Why Japanese Factories Work. HBR, July-August Skinner, Wickham. The Productivity Paradox. HBR, July-August Hayes, Robert H. and Kim Clark. Why Some Factories Are More Productive Than Others. HBR, September-October 1986.

101 © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 101 Drucker, Peter F. The Emerging Theory of Manufacturing. HBR, May-June Drucker, Peter F. The Productivity Challenge. HBR, November- December Some Landmark Articles on Operations Management


Download ppt "© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.1 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 1 – Operations and Productivity PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google