The Twelve (as listed in the synoptic gospels) 1. Simon, who is called Peter 2. Andrew, his brother 3. James the son of Zebedee 4. John, his brother 5. Philip 6. Bartholomew (?) 7. Thomas 8. Matthew, the tax collector 9. James the son of Alphaeus 10. Thaddaeus (?) 11. Simon the Zealot 12. Judas Iscariot
Matthew 10:2-4 (NIV) Jesus Sends Out the Twelve Jesus called his twelve disciples to him and gave them authority to drive out impure spirits and to heal every disease and sickness. These are the names of the twelve apostles: first, Simon (who is called Peter) and his brother Andrew; James son of Zebedee, and his brother John; 3 Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; 4 Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.
Mark 3:14-19 (NIV) 14 He appointed twelve that they might be with him and that he might send them out to preach 15 and to have authority to drive out demons. 16 These are the twelve he appointed: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter), 17 James son of Zebedee and his brother John (to them he gave the name Boanerges, which means sons of thunder), 18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot 19 and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.
Luke 6:12-16 (NIV) One of those days Jesus went out to a mountainside to pray, and spent the night praying to God. 13 When morning came, he called his disciples to him and chose twelve of them, whom he also designated apostles: 14 Simon (whom he named Peter), his brother Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, 15 Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Simon who was called the Zealot, 16 Judas son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.
Acts 1:13-14 (NIV) Here are the names of those who were present: Peter, John, James, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James (son of Alphaeus), Simon (the Zealot), and Judas (son of James). 14 They all met together and were constantly united in prayer, along with Mary the mother of Jesus, several other women, and the brothers of Jesus.
MatthewMarkLuke/Acts Simon, who is called Peter Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter) Simon, whom he named Peter Andrew, his brotherAndrewAndrew his brother James the son of Zebedee James John, his brother John the brother of James (Boanerges) John Philip Bartholomew
MatthewMarkLuke/Acts Thomas Matthew, the tax collector Matthew James the son of Alphaeus Thaddaeus Judas the son of James Simon the Zealot Simon who was called the Zealot Judas Iscariot
There is another disciple named in the Gospel of John: The next day Jesus decided to leave for Galilee. Finding Philip, he said to him, Follow me. 44 Philip, like Andrew and Peter, was from the town of Bethsaida. 45 Philip found Nathanael and told him, We have found the one Moses wrote about in the Law, and about whom the prophets also wroteJesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 46 Nazareth! Can anything good come from there? Nathanael asked. Come and see, said Philip.
But, there is yet another of the Twelve: After Judas was dead,...
May another take his place of leadership. 21 Therefore it is necessary to choose one of the men who have been with us the whole time the Lord Jesus was living among us, 22 beginning from Johns baptism to the time when Jesus was taken up from us. For one of these must become a witness with us of his resurrection. 23 So they nominated two men: Joseph called Barsabbas (also known as Justus) and Matthias. 24 Then they prayed, Lord, you know everyones heart. Show us which of these two you have chosen 25 to take over this apostolic ministry, which Judas left to go where he belongs. 26 Then they cast lots, and the lot fell to Matthias; so he was added to the eleven apostles. (Acts 1:20-26, NIV)
Their first assignment: Jesus called his twelve disciples to him and gave them authority to drive out impure spirits and to heal every disease and sickness...... 5 These twelve Jesus sent out with the following instructions: Do not go among the Gentiles or enter any town of the Samaritans. 6 Go rather to the lost sheep of Israel. 7 As you go, proclaim this message: The kingdom of heaven has come near. 8 Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse those who have leprosy, drive out demons. Freely you have received; freely give. (Matthew 10:1, 5-8, NIV)
Diversity and Opposition: Matthew the Tax Collector and Simon The Zealot
Matthew the Tax Collector As he walked along, he saw Levi son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax collectors booth. Follow me, Jesus told him, and Levi got up and followed him. (Mark 2:14, NIV) As Jesus went on from there, he saw a man named Matthew sitting at the tax collectors booth. Follow me, he told him, and Matthew got up and followed him. (Matt 9:9, NIV)
As he walked along, he saw Levi son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax collectors booth. (Mark 2:14, NIV) Matthew = Levi son of Alphaeus... Was he a brother to James son of Alphaeus? (i.e. James the Less) MatthewMarkLuke/Acts Matthew, the tax collector Matthew James the son of Alphaeus
(Matthew the Tax Collector, cont.) Terms: Tax Collector Publican comes from the idea of a collector of public revenue Two types of tax collectors: Gabbai Mokhes
(Matthew the Tax Collector, cont.) Two types of tax collectors: Gabbaigeneral property tax, income tax, and the poll tax. Mokhes (Great and Little)--imports and exports, goods for domestic trade, virtually anything that was moved by road. They set tolls on roads and bridges, taxed beasts of burden and axles on transport wagons, and charged tariffs on parcels, letters, or whatever else they could find to tax.
(Matthew the Tax Collector, cont.) 3 tax collectors mentioned in the gospels*: 1.The publican in the parable (Luke 18:10-14) 2. Zaccheus (Luke 19) 3. Matthew/Levi, one of the 12 disciples Religious outcasts, forbidden to enter any synagogue, and forbidden to sacrifice and worship in the templeworse off religiously than a Gentile. (*Note that all 3 found forgiveness from God)
(Matthew the Tax Collector, cont.) Then Levi held a great banquet for Jesus at his house, and a large crowd of tax collectors and others were eating with them. 30 But the Pharisees and the teachers of the law who belonged to their sect complained to his disciples, Why do you eat and drink with tax collectors and sinners? 31 Jesus answered them, It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. 32 I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. (Luke 5: 29-32, NIV)