Presentation on theme: "The Victorian Era 1832-1901. Learning Objectives To identify the major authors and literary contributors of the Victorian period. To identify the major."— Presentation transcript:
The Victorian Era
Learning Objectives To identify the major authors and literary contributors of the Victorian period. To identify the major authors and literary contributors of the Victorian period. To recognize the major literary characteristics of the period. To recognize the major literary characteristics of the period. To understand how the politics of a time period can influence its literature. To understand how the politics of a time period can influence its literature. To identify major vocabulary needed to analyze the literature of the period. To identify major vocabulary needed to analyze the literature of the period.
Only One Queen… Victoria 63 year reign (longest British reign and longest ever female reign) Thank her for… – Christmas Trees – Brides in White – Valentines Day Greeting Cards Model wife, mother, and queen Weird Stuff: The Kensington System Married her cousin Albert (she asked him)
Early Victorian Era: A Time of Troubles 1830 – Reform Parliament, Opening of first public railroad – Liverpool and Manchester Railway 1832 – The First Reform Bill – Right to vote to landowners worth £10 or more 1837 – Victoria becomes Queen of England
Early Victorian Era: A Time of Troubles 1840s – Depression, widespread unemployment, bad environmental conditions caused by manufacturing and mining. Rioting – The Mine Act prevents women and children from working in mines – Factory Acts – Limits workers under age 18 to only 12 hours of work per day
Early Victorian Era: A Time of Troubles 1845 – English crop failures / potato blight begins in Ireland 1846 – Corn Laws Repealed (takes away high tariffs on imported food) 1848 – Cholera Epidemic
Mid-Victorian Era: Prosperity & Religious Controversy 1850 – Roman Catholic hierarchy restored in England 1850s – Debates between the Utilitarians w/ Jeremy Bentham and Conservatives w/ Samuel Taylor Coleridge argue the necessity of religion in the modern world. Heyday of Dickens.
Mid-Victorian Era: Prosperity & Religious Controversy 1851 – The Great Exhibition and the Crystal Palace (1 st Worlds Fair) 1854 – Crimean War 1857 – Indian comes under British rule 1859 – Darwin publishes Origin of the Species
Mid-Victorian Era: Prosperity & Religious Controversy 1861 – Death of Prince Albert – Victoria refuses to go out in public for many years, wears black ever after – The Second Reform Bill gives working class men the right to vote, strengthening the Labor Party.
Late Victorian Era: Decay of Values & the Gay Nineties Late 1800s – Bismarcks Germany confronts England w/ powerful threats to navy and industry 1870 – Elementary Education Act – basic education became free for children under – Darwin publishes The Descent of Man 1873 – massive emigration due to economic depression
Late Victorian Era: Decay of Values & the Gay Nineties 1874 – Geologists extend the history of the earth back millions of years, contradicting the human timeline provided by the Bible – England buys shares in the Suez Canal in Egypt 1880s – The Irish Question – Home Rule for Ireland
Late Victorian Era: Decay of Values & the Gay Nineties 1882 – Electric Lighting introduced to London streets 1888 – Jack the Ripper terrorizes London 1890s – The Gay Nineties describe the open affairs/partying of Prince Edward, Victorias son – Queen Victoria dies
Morality and Home Decorum & Authority – Victorians saw themselves progressing morally & intellectually Powerful middle-class obsessed with gentility, decorum = prudery/Victorianism Censorship of writers: no mention of sex, birth, or death
Morality and Home Decorum – powerful ideas about authority – Victorian private lives – autocratic father figure – Women – subject to male authority – Middle-class women expected to marry & make home a refuge for husband – Women had few occupations open to them – Unmarried women often portrayed comically by male writers
Empire and Imperialism England reaches highest point of development as world power Colonies by 1890 cover ¼ of earths surface England the world foremost imperial power Celebration of superior qualities of English people The sun never sets on the British Empire
Religious Outlooks Utilitarians – test all institutions in light of human reason to determine whether they were useful – believed religious belief was outmoded superstition. Headed by Jeremy Bentham/John Stuart Mill (typical of the Enlightenment) Conservatives – If reason seemed to demonstrate the irrelevance of religion, then reason must be an inadequate mode of arriving at the truth. Headed by Samuel Taylor Coleridge (typical Romantic). Evangelicals – branch of Church of England responsible for emancipation of all slaves in British Empire (as early as 1833). Advocates of strict puritan code of morality. – Sobriety, hard work, joyless abstention from worldly pleasures, respectability (Typically Victorian)
Characteristics of the Literature Serialized novels Detective Fiction Science Fiction Childrens Books/Fiction Attention to Social Problems – Industrial Revolution – Theory of Evolution – Womens Rights – Child Labor Attention to Expanding Empire/Imperialism Taking up The White Mans Burden Christian Missionary concerns in colonized countries. Attention psychology
Common Themes The growth of the English democracy. The education of the masses. The rise of the feminist movements. Growing class tensions, as well as the troubles of the newly industrialized worker. The progress of industrial enterprise and the consequent rise of a materialistic philosophy. Pressures towards political and social reform. Questioning of Faith and Truth (due to scientific discoveries like the theory of evolution by Darwin).
Whats going on in America? Transcendentalism: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Bronson Alcott Romanticism: Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Herman Melville, James Fennimore Cooper, Emily Dickinson, Walt Whitman Realism/Local Color: Kate Chopin, Charlotte Gilman, Hart Crane, Mark Twain, Henry James Naturalism: Ambrose Bierce, Jack London, Stephen Crane
Terms to Know Realism: attempts to describe human behavior and surroundings or to represent figures and objects exactly as they act or appear in life. – Examples: George Eliot (Middlemarch) and Thomas Hardy (Tess of the dUrbervilles)
Terms to Know Pre-Raphaelite: a group of 19th-century English painters, poets, and critics who reacted against Victorian materialism and the neoclassical conventions of academic art by producing earnest, quasi- religious works. – Example: The Goblin Market by Christina Rossetti – Artwork of her brother, Gabriel Rossetti
Terms to Know Social Satire: Satire is literature that uses humor or sarcasm to ridicule human vices or follies. Dickens was interested in social reform, and passages of the novel often reflect his feelings toward people and institutions in nineteenth- century English society. – Ex. Vanity Fair - Thackery
Terms to Know Dickensian: the grotesquea type of literature in which characters outstanding physical or personality traits are exaggerated for comic or dramatic effect. This style has come to be known as Dickensian, and this term is today used to refer to any work that has characteristics of Dickenss writing.
Terms to Know Dramatic Monologue – poetry that presents a speaker who unwittingly provides psychological insight through his words to the audience. Ex. My Last Duchess or Porphyrias Lover by Robert Browning