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Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Tariff and Rate Setting Session on Regulation & Accountability Max Bradford Castalia The views expressed here are.

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Presentation on theme: "Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Tariff and Rate Setting Session on Regulation & Accountability Max Bradford Castalia The views expressed here are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Tariff and Rate Setting Session on Regulation & Accountability Max Bradford Castalia The views expressed here are those of the presenter and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Directors, or the governments they represent.

2 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Price-Setting Assumptions Private provider usually wants to maximize security of investment and profits Government usually wants to maximize welfare e.g. provide affordable services to poor Full recovery of efficient costs necessary for long-term sustainable service provision

3 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Getting the Tariff Level Right Is Important Tariff should provide incentive for consumers to use service optimally especially as resources become more scarce Tariffs should provide incentive for service provider to invest for high quality services over the long run Low tariffs may not recover full costs quality suffers Poor consumers may not be able to afford cost- recovery tariff should a subsidy regime be applied?

4 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Regulation: A Balancing Act?

5 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Need to Consider Tariff Structure + Level Equity Cost recovery Affordability Administrative simplicity Incentives for efficient water use = Long term sustainability Good tariff structure... PLUS:

6 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Tariff Structures Two part tariff Fixed / access component to cover fixed costs Variable / consumption-based component to cover operating and variable costs Single tariff Rising / decreasing block tariffs

7 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Types of Tariff Regulation Rate of Return - Review costs + adjust tariff to maintain set level of return Prices reflect costs; revenue stability for provider Information intensive Setting rate too low may lead to under-investment Setting rate to low may lead to gold-plating Limited performance incentives Consumer bears risks

8 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Types of Tariff Regulation ( continued ) Price Cap - Tariffs set at cost-recovery level, then allowed to rise in line with inflation less an offset Gives provider incentive to improve efficiency Provider risk: earning instability Cost reductions may = decrease in service quality Poor demand estimates also affect provider profits

9 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Types of Tariff Regulation ( continued ) Revenue Cap - Revenue set at cost-recovery level, then allowed to rise in line with inflation less an offset Tariff reflects level of demand Gives provider incentive to improve efficiency Cost reductions may = decrease in service quality

10 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Types of Tariff Regulation ( continued ) Benchmarking Regulation - Operator compared to another (yardstick) operator, with penalties/awards given for worse/better performance Provides incentives to lower costs Difficult to find good comparator / decide on categories for comparison High informational requirements

11 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Choosing a Form of Regulation Rate of Return Regulation may be desirable if: Expected costs difficult to predict Provider needs stable revenue Provider currently operating efficiently Tariff Cap Regulation may be desirable if: Need stable and certain tariff levels Provider revenue stability not essential Regulatory proceedings are costly Provider not operating efficiently Could use hybrid approach, with targeted incentives

12 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Tariff-Setting Building Blocks Approach Service Standards New Capital Expenditure Actual Operating and Maintenance Expenses Existing Assets Regulated Asset Base Reasonable Rate of Return (WACC) Target Return on Assets Form of Control Indexation Price or Revenue Cap Regulatory Lag Maximum Allowed Revenue Pricing Methodology Customer Contract Depreciation/ Capital Asset Maintenance Efficiency Adjustment Allowed Operating and Maintenance Expenses =x +

13 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit Access Pricing In a number of infrastructure industries, some facilities exhibit natural monopoly characteristics: Airports, seaports, wharves, railroads Telecommunication networks Gas & water pipelines Electricity transmission grids Two interrelated markets - an upstream market containing the essential facility and a downstream market Regulation can set price at competitive level

14 Cross-Border Infrastructure: A Toolkit In Summary… Tariff setting is a balancing act Trade-off economic sustainability with welfare objectives Efficiency vv equity Various types of regulation for setting tariffs and prices Rate of return Price caps Revenue caps Benchmarking Interconnection and access pricing key to market competition


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