Presentation on theme: "n Today, I will learn... –Identify changes in domestic policy during the Progressive Presidencies of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson. n I have learned it."— Presentation transcript:
n Today, I will learn... –Identify changes in domestic policy during the Progressive Presidencies of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson. n I have learned it when I can... –recognize that key issues in third party platforms became focal points for the major political parties. Instructional Statements
n What were the domestic policies under Presidents William H. Taft and Woodrow Wilson? Essential Question
PowerPoint by Mr. Hataway Revised 11.01.04 Revised 10.01.12
"Next to the right of liberty, the right of property is the most important individual right guaranteed by the Constitution and the one which, united with that of personal liberty, has contributed more to the growth of civilization than any other institution established by the human race." "The President cannot make clouds to rain and cannot make the corn to grow, he cannot make business good; although when these things occur, political parties do claim some credit for the good things that have happened in this way."
Progressivism Under Taft n Election of 1908 –William H. Taft (R) v. William J. Bryan (D) –Secretary of War under Roosevelt –Endorsed by Roosevelt –Easily defeated Bryan
Progressivism Under Taft n Antagonizing Progressives –Promised lower tariffs but anger the Progressive wing of the Republican Party when he signed the Payne Aldrich Tariff. –Allowed development on federal lands that Roosevelt had set aside to preserve. –Brought twice as many antitrust cases as Roosevelt (90)
TAFT HAD PROBLEMS WITH BOTH THE CONSERVATIVE AND PROGRESSIVE WINGS OF HIS REPUBLICAN PARTY. THIS EVENTUALLY LED TO A SPLIT BETWEEN HE AND THEODORE ROOSEVELT CULMINATING IN THE 1912 ELECTION WHERE THEY RAN AGAINST EACH OTHER, SPLITTING THE REPUBLICAN VOTE, ASSURING A DEMOCRATIC VICTORY. A MAJOR REASON FOR THE SPLIT WAS TAFTS FIRING OF PINCHOT. THIS WAS SEEN AS AN ATTACK ON THE CONSERVATION AND VIOLATION OF ROOSEVELTS CORE BELIEFS. TAFT DID PROMOTE SEVERAL PROGRESSIVE AGENDAS INCLUDING INITIATING MORE ANTI-TRUST CASE THAN ROOSEVELT.
Election of 1912 nSnSnSnSplit in the Republican Party –R–R–R–Roosevelt refused to criticize Taft until the president brought an antitrust lawsuit against U.S. Steel. –A–A–A–Attempt to replace Taft as the Republican nominee in the 1912.
Election of 1912 nSnSnSnSplit in the Republican Party –R–R–R–Republicans chose Taft over Roosevelt –R–R–R–Roosevelt and the Progressives bolt, form Progressive Party, a.k.a. the Bull Moose Party
Election of 1912 nDnDnDnDemocrats –W–W–W–Woodrow Wilson, former president of Princeton U. and governor of New Jersey –P–P–P–Platform called New Freedom »S»S»S»Stronger antitrust legislation »B»B»B»Bank reform »L»L»L»Lower tariffs
Election of 1912 nSnSnSnSocialist Party –E–E–E–Eugene V. Debs –W–W–W–Wants government redistribute the wealth of the nation.
Election of 1912 nRnRnRnResults –R–R–R–Republicans split, Wilson easily won. –D–D–D–Democrats take majority control of Congress.
WOODROW WILSON (1856-1924) TWENTY-EIGHTH PRESIDENT 1913-1921 :DEMOCRAT "Government should not be made an end in itself; it is a means only,a means to be freely adapted to advance the best interests of the social organism. The State exists for the sake of Society, not Society for the sake of the State."
Busting the Trusts n Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) –Increased the power of the federal government to prevent unfair business practices. –Created the Federal Trade Commission »Protected consumers against unfair business practices by corporations.
Regulating the Economy nUnUnUnUnderwood Tariff (1913) –L–L–L–Lowered tariffs by 25%
Regulating the Economy n1n1n1n16th Amendment (1913) –G–G–G–Gave Congress power to tax personal income & business –E–E–E–Established by the Income Tax
Regulating the Economy nGnGnGnGraduated Income Tax (1913) –R–R–R–Rich taxpayers taxed at a higher rate.
Regulating the Economy nFnFnFnFederal Reserve System (1913) –1–1–1–12 regional reserve banks –The Bankers bank
Regulating the Economy nFnFnFnFederal Reserve System (1913) –A–A–A–Allowed the Fed to regulate the circulation of the money supply. –B–B–B–Bank Reform: required banks to keep some deposits in a reserve.
Labor nDnDnDnDepartment of Labor –C–C–C–Created Cabinet Post to study the problems of labor, collect statistics, and enforce federal labor laws. –I–I–I–In 1900, over 1.7 million children under 16 worked mostly in unsafe factories and mines.
LEWIS HINE In 1908, the National Child Labor Committee provided Hine with a monthly salary and assigned him to photograph child labor practices. For the next several years, Hine traveled extensively, photographing children in mines, factories, canneries, textile mills, street trades and assorted agricultural industries. Hines photographs alerted the public to the fact that child labor deprived children of childhood, health, education and a chance of a future. His work on this project was the driving force behind changing the publics attitude and was instrumental in the fight for stricter child labor laws. By the early 1900s, 28 states had laws regulating child labor.
Child Labor nKnKnKnKeating-Owen Child Labor Act –F–F–F–First federal law regulating child labor. –P–P–P–Prohibited children under age 14 from working in factories. –D–D–D–Declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court