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Chapter 34: The Shadow of War

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1 Chapter 34: The Shadow of War
US Neutrality Chapter 34: The Shadow of War

2 US Reaction to increasing hostility
In the 1930s Americans, led by FDR, turned their backs on the world’s problems - Attention was focused on ending the depression -The costs of foreign involvement, seemed too great

3 London Conference 66 nations sent delegates to London hoping to organize a coordinated effort to combat the depression Stabilize the values of currencies revival of world trade FDR originally agreed to send a delegation to the conference, but he changed his mind , wanted to take us off gold, knew they wouldn’t like it

4 London Conference The conference ended without accomplishing goals,
blaming the “bad faith” of the Americans Strengthens nationalism- every nation for themselves

5 Philippines The cost of maintaining a military presence in Asia was too expensive to justify Organized labor demanded American companies stay here and hire US workers. US sugar producers wanted to get rid of competition from cheap Filipino labor

6 Philippines Tydings – McDuffie Act (1934): Philippines would be granted independence after 12 years ( 1946) No US Army bases US keeps Naval bases Japanese viewed this as US abandoning power in Pacific- motivates them to take more territory

7 US Recognizes Russia U.S. formally recognized the Soviet Union in 1933
Protests were voiced by conservatives Roman Catholics FDR’s motivations: establishing trade counterweight to the possible threat of Germany and Japan

8 Good Neighbor Policy “I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the Good Neighbor.” inaugural speech US would not uphold Roosevelt Corollary while FDR was in power - Seventh Pan-American Conference in Montevideo, Uruguay in late 1933

9 Reasons for Good Neighbor Policy
Great Depression Can’t afford to maintain troops Not investing as much in foreign countries, no need to back up our interests with troops Better relationship with neighbors Tensions mounting in Europe, want to make sure our neighbors like us!

10 Reciprocal Trade Agreement (1934)
Created by Secretary of State, Cordell Hull President could lower tariffs by as much as 50% without consulting Congress High tariffs choke off foreign trade Trade wars bring about shooting wars Ushers in idea of Free Trade that takes off after WWII No blanket tariffs, negotiate by region –keep tariffs low US trade increased dramatically

11 American Isolationism in the face of increasing European Tensions
Isolationism is the name of the game in the 1930s Americans still believed that the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans provided some kind of mystical immunity from attack Americans now regarded participation in WW I as a colossal blunder Americans viewed Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, and other European nations as ungrateful and defaulting debtors

12 American Isolationism in the face of increasing European Tensions
Johnson Debt Default Act (1934) – prevented nations who defaulted on their debts from borrowing further in the United States “If attacked again they can stew in their own juices.” Other calls for isolationism Some demanded a constitutional amendment to forbid a declaration of war by Congress except in case of invasion Ludlow Amendment: proposed numerous times, never passes war could be declared by popular vote

13 Congress Legislates Neutrality
Many Americans condemned weapons manufacturers as “merchants of death” Sen. Gerald Nye was appointed to chair a subcommittee to investigate the “blood business” Did business interests pull us into WWI? Making loans to belligerents? Selling goods to belligerents? Subcommittee never formally blamed any group for our involvement in war Fears of escalating tension in Europe and Pacific caused Congress to create Neutrality Acts

14 Neutrality Acts The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 – when taken together Stated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship (ship of a country at war) Sell or transport war material to a belligerent (country at war), or Make loans to a belligerent (country at war) The Acts were tailored to keep the U.S. out of a conflict like WW I Abandoned freedom of the seas Allows us to sit back as dictators advance their plans Ethiopia, Spain, Austria, Czechoslovakia…

15 European Acts of Agression
1933: 1/30- Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany 2/27- Burning of the Reichstag 3/20- Dachau opens 3/23- Enabling Act: Hitler declares state of emergency to take more power 4/1- Nazi boycott of Jewish owned stores 5/10- book burning 7/14- Nazi party official party of Germany 10/14- Germany leaves League of Nations

16 European Acts of Agression
August 1934: Hitler becomes Fuehrer 1935: 3/16- Hitler announces the build up of the Germany military violating the Treaty of Versailles 9/15- Nuremberg Laws are issued, strip Jews of the rights of citizenship Deprived German Jews of their rights of citizenship Forbid Jews to marry or have sexual relations with Aryans or to employ young Aryan women as household help.

17 European Acts of Agression
10/3- Italy invades Ethiopia (May 1936) One of 3 independent nations in Africa Resisted an earlier attack by Italy (1890) Italians: tanks, guns, chemical weapons Ethiopians: spears and swords Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations to come to their defense, they condemn the attack but do nothing Britain: allows Italy to use Suez Canal (they controlled it at the time) US: doesn’t place an oil embargo on Italy

18 European Acts of Agression
1936: 3/7-German Troops Occupy the Rhineland Hitler is continuing to test T.O.V. Moves troops into demilitarized zone on the German /French border No one does anything, emboldens Hitler Britain and France follow policy of appeasement: give in to Hitler to keep peace France

19 European Acts of Aggression
7/17/36- Spanish Civil War breaks out (4/39) Fascist Franco leads revolt against Republicans (loyalist) government Aided by Hitler and Mussolini ; want another Fascist on the continent Money and supplies Loyalists aided by Soviets; fearful of another fascist on the continent Send money and supplies Britain and France remain neutral US responds by passing the Neutrality Acts of 1936 and 37 Some Americans volunteer to fight with the loyalists and head to Spain

20 European Acts of Agression
10/21- Rome Berlin Axis created Informal alliance uniting foreign policy goals Result of working together to aid Franco in Spanish Civil War 11/25- Japan joins Rome-Berlin Axis

21 European Acts of Agression
1938: 3/12 &13- Germany announces Anschluss (union) with Austria Hitler creates atmosphere of chaos in Austria Murder Austrian Chancellor 1936 1937: Nazi party grows in power Jan: Nazi party banned in Austria, rioting begins Feb: Hitler will stop violence if Austria is annexed March12: Schuschnigg (new chancellor) resigns, Germany rolls in

22 European Acts of Agression
9/30-Munich Agreement Hitler wants Sudetenland b/c 3 million German speaking people live there, begins propaganda campaign summer of 38 Forbidden by T.O.V. France, Great Britain request a meeting with Germany and Italy in hopes of avoiding war agree to allow Hitler to annex the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) if he promises not to expand any more Policy of Appeasement: Give Hitler what he wants so he doesn't come after us Neville Chamberlin (PM of G.B.): “Peace in our time” Poland France

23 Appeasement ?!? Why appeasement? Any objections?
Want to avoid war at all costs Concerned about poor economic situation of their own nation Fearful of another devastating war in less than 2 decades Any objections? Winston Churchill (then member of Parliament, future PM of G.B.) “ We are in the presence of a disaster of the first magnitude…we have sustained a defeat without war…and do not suppose that this is the end…this is only the first sip, the first foretaste of a bitter cup which will be proffered to us year by year unless, by a supreme recovery of moral health and martial vigor, we arise again and take our stand for freedom…”

24 European Acts of Aggression
11/ 9&10- Kristallnacht Two days of violence against Jews in Germany ,Austria, and the Sudetenland Blamed for murder of German diplomat in Paris Jews made to pay for damages… 15,000 sent to Poland…91 killed Additional Laws added Must register all property Not allowed to participate in certain professions or the arts

25 European Acts of Agression
1939: 5/22: Nazi’s sign Pact of Steel with Italy Formal military alliance 8/23: German –Soviet non aggression pact signed Secret agreement, if Germany invades Poland it will split the country with USSR and they promise not to invade each other 9/1: Germany invades Poland Britain and France have military alliance with Poland 9/3: British and French declare war on Germany

26 Contradictions to American Neutrality in the Pacific
1937 – Japan engages in an all-out attack of China, beginning the Sino-Japanese War To avoid invoking the Neutrality Act, FDR wouldn’t declare this a war Want to help China Worried about Japanese aggression in Hawaii, Philippines, or mainland US Actually helps Japan b/c they have more $ 10/ 37 : In Chicago, FDR delivers his “Quarantine Speech”- calling for a voluntary embargo on selling goods to Japan The speech triggered protest from isolationists, causing FDR to retreat from his hard line support of China

27 Fear of engagement in the Pacific
12/ 1937 – The American gunboat, Panay, sailing in Chinese waters, is bombed and sunk by Japanese planes, leaving two U.S. sailors dead and thirty injured Unlike U.S. reactions in the past, there was little to no U.S. outrage Japan apologized, claimed they didn’t know it was a US vessel Paid $2 million

28 American Neutrality after start of War
WWII begins with German invasion of Poland 9/1/39; War declared 9/3/39 by Great Britain and France Isolationists try to maintain neutrality as long as possible, but FDR sees the writing on the wall Americans were overwhelmingly anti-Nazi and anti-Hitler They definitely wanted the “forces of righteousness” to prevail FDR appealed to Congress to consider changing Neutrality Acts –debate ensues

29 American Neutrality after start of War
After six weeks of negotiations, the Neutrality Act of 1939 was passed, which provided: European democracies could buy American war materiel on a “cash and carry” basis Belligerents would have to move the munitions on their own ships, after paying in cash We would take them to Iceland, but that’s as far as we would go. The president was authorized to declare danger zones - American ships were forbidden to enter these zones

30 American Neutrality after start of War
The Act was designed so that America could avoid: Making loans Accumulating war debts Torpedoing of American ships The Act also accomplished these goals: It favored democracies over dictators Helped to solve the decade long unemployment crisis

31 Greater US involvment America is shocked out of it’s isolationist daydream when France falls (June 22, 1940) if Britain falls, Hitler will have all of the peoples of western Europe as potential slave labor if Britain falls, their naval fleet will now be controlled by Germany – threatening America’s security


33 Greater US involvment FDR and Congress reacted with incredible speed
$37 billion is appropriated to build a huge air fleet and a two-ocean navy (more than the entire cost of WW I and about five times the cost of any New Deal budget). Congress passes a Conscription Law on September 6, 1940 – the nation’s first peacetime draft – providing for the training of 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves

34 Presidential Election 1940
FDR (Democrat) vs. Wendell Willkie (Republican) FDR’s bid for a third term was controversial; 78% of newspapers endorsed Willkie because of this He was able to win because he had experience and it looked as if the nation was being brought closer to war Willkie didn’t help by agreeing with FDR’s foreign policy so far. Mainly ran saying FDR’s good , but no one should be president for more than 2 terms.

35 Presidential Election 1940
449 electoral votes to 82

36 Greater US involvment two perspectives :
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (CDAAA) was in favor of assisting Britain (William Allen White- newspaper publisher, Bernard Baruch- former head of War production Board ) The America First Committee argued that all of America’s resources should be used to defend its’ own shores (Charles Lindbergh and Henry Ford)

37 Greater US involvement
Britain was in critical need of destroyers because German submarine attacks September 2, 1940 – Presidential Agreement with Great Britain, 50 WW I vintage destroyers are transferred to the British in exchange for eight defensive base sites stretching from Newfoundland to South America the American public was in support of the transfer FDR couldn’t wait for Congress

38 Lend- Lease By late 1940 Britain had almost exhausted its financial credit in the U.S. FDR was determined to eliminate “the silly, foolish, old dollar sign” as an obstacle to aiding the Allies FDR’s solution was Lend-Lease (March 1941) leasing American arms to the democracies for their exclusive use during the war

39 Lend-Lease The Lend-Lease Bill, S-1776, “An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the United States” “Send guns, not sons” “Billions, not bodies” According to FDR, America would be the “arsenal of democracy” Its stated goals: support the democracies and keep America out of the war

40 Lend-Lease One of the most momentous laws ever to pass Congress
In effect, Lend-Lease was an economic declaration of war geared U.S. factories for all-out war production Hitler recognized Lend-Lease as a declaration of war – German submarines began to attack the U.S. merchant fleet shortly after passage of the law 7/41 US starts to convoy 9/41 Greer 10/41 Reuben James 11/41 Merchant ships can arm

41 Atlantic Charter Hitler’s Assault on the Soviet Union Spawns the Atlantic Charter June 22, 1941: Hitler attacked Russia(one year after fall of France) Operation Barbarossa Hitler wants Russian resources Russia given Lend Lease aid ($11 billion total during war) Atlantic Conference: August 1941,resulted in Atlantic Charter The charter affirmed the right for people to choose their rulers It declared disarmament and a peace of security, as well as a new League of Nations (United Nations) Some unhappy with this felt it was a new 14 points

42 Meanwhile in the Pacific:
In 1940, Japan began working with its allies to secure a foothold in Southeast Asia and the Pacific in order to secure important war materials such as rubber and oil. Japan widened the scope of its war through measures such as:  Securing the right to build airfields in Indochina from the Vichy government Occupying French Indochina Signing the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy to form the Axis alliance (Sept 1940) Signing a nonaggression pact with the Russians in order to ensure the safety of its northern front in China (Aug 1941)

43 Increasing Tension with Japan
The United States responded to these actions by voicing its disapproval and pursuing economic policies meant to discourage Japan from further aggression. Extended Lend –Lease to China Refused to export arms to Japan Froze all Japanese assets (money) in the United States Stopped exporting oil to Japan—a significant punishment, considering 80 percent of Japanese oil came from the United States Roosevelt refused to lift the embargo until Japanese troops withdrew from China and Indochina. Nov 1941, we know an attack is coming but think it will be at British Malaya or the Philippines

44 Japanese Attack the US at Pearl Harbor: December 7, 1941
18 months earlier FDR moves Pacific fleet from San Diego to Pearl Harbor The attacking planes came in two waves; the first hit its target at 7:53 AM, the second at 8:55. By 9:55 it was all over. 2,403 dead 161 destroyed planes , 108 damaged a crippled Pacific Fleet that included 3 damaged and 5 sunken battleships. 2 of the 5 battleships that were sunk were salvaged. The 3 damaged ships were repaired by Feb 1942 (only 2 months later!) Americans united behind a declaration of war

45 Pearl Harbor The same day Japan was able to launch attacks against the Philippines, Guam, Midway, Wake Island and British Malaya They would continue to gain territory for the next several months stopping just short of Australia Thankfully our 6 aircraft carriers, 25 submarines and, fuel oil storage facilities, and dry dock (repair station) emerged unscathed. These would be the foundation for an eventual American victory.

46 Declaration of War December 8, 1941 US Declares War!
“Yesterday, December 7, a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. “ -FDR

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