COTTON FACTORIES ENGLAND: LOTS OF FACTORIES $1 $3 USA ADDS TARIFF OF $5 $6
Favored a high tariff that would protect their young businesses. Began developing industries and factories and continued to trade. Labor came from German and Irish immigrants who worked in factories. Set up public education supported by tax money. Supported national bank
Favored low tariffs because they had to pay higher prices for manufactured goods when the tariff was high. Economy based on agriculture and cash crops like cotton. Labor came from slaves. Outlawed education for slaves and no public education for whites either. Opposed national bank.
Sided with the North on the high tariff in exchange for the North supporting internal improvements and cheaper land prices. Economy based on agriculture. Opposed national bank.
Sectionalism is loyalty to a persons state rather than the country as a whole. During the 19 th century in America, sectionalism was very strong. People in the South disliked the North because they were afraid they the North was trying to change their way of life.
During the 18 th century, many people thought that slavery would die out. Slavery had become a major part of the American economy. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. The cotton gin was a machine that separated seeds from cotton. Cotton became a huge cash crop in the South because of the cotton gin. This meant that slavery increased due to the cotton gin, not decreased.
Another one of Eli Whitneys inventions were very important to the Northern economy. The concept of interchangeable parts meant that people could take parts off of one product and use them on another of the same product. Example: making muskets all the same size so that they can fit into other gun. Example: making Ford engines all the same so that they can swap from car to car.
The South believed in states rights, meaning they believed the states should have most powers. The South also believed in nullification – meaning the states had the right to ignore a federal law if they thought it was unconstitutional. Southerners were also against tariffs. Tariffs made it harder for the South to buy manufactured goods (i.e. clothing) from England. Tariffs also made it harder for the British to buy the Souths cotton (since less clothing was being bought)
During the 1820s, the debate over slavery began to really heat up. In 1828, Adams signed into law the Tariff of 1828 or (as people in the South called it) the Tariff of Abominations. This was one of the highest tariffs ever. John C. Calhoun was one of South Carolinas Senators. He said that he supported nullification – meaning the states could ignore the tariff. South Carolina vowed to secede from the United States if the tariff was not repealed (taken away). President Andrew Jackson was determined to enforce the tariff and make South Carolina pay it. But then, Henry Clay (called the Great Compromiser) came up with a plan that both sides could agree on. This ended the nullification crisis.
People in the west wanted internal improvements: roads, bridges, and canals, etc. So, Henry Clay proposed an alliance with the North. The North would support internal improvements, while the West would support the higher tariffs. The American System had three parts: 1) A tariff to protect the manufacturing industry. 2) Internal improvements: building new roads and canals 3) A Strong National Bank
The debate over slavery began to reach a boiling point over the course of the 1820s – 1860s. In 1820, Missouri applied to become a state as a slave state. But the North did not want this. The Missouri Compromise allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state with Maine entering as a free state. The Missouri Compromise drew a line at 36 30 and said there could be no more slave states added above that line. The Missouri Compromise put the debate to rest momentarily, which delayed the Civil War. There were also fierce debates over adding Texas and Oregon.
During the Mexican-American War, Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed the idea that any new states as a result of the war would be free soil – not open to slave labor. This idea was called The Wilmot Proviso. This idea passed the House, but was stopped in the Senate by southern Senators. This idea scared the southerners and made them want to maintain the balance of slave and free states.
After the Gold Rush of 1849, Californias population grew exponentially and became a state. The Compromise of 1850: 1) Allow California to enter as a free state. 2) Pass a stronger Fugitive Slave Law 3) Allow other areas gained by Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo (Utah, Arizona, New Mexico) to decide on slavery based on popular sovereignty. Popular sovereignty: allow states to vote on whether or not to allow slavery. 4) Sale of slaves was prohibited in Washington, D.C.
In 1854, Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This law said that areas above the 36 30 line given by the Missouri Compromise would now decide on slavery based on popular sovereignty. So, in effect, the Kansas-Nebraska Act overturned the Missouri Compromise. Since Kansas was to decide on slavery based on voting, people who were FOR slavery and AGAINST slavery started migrating into Kansas in order to vote. These two sides clashed and fought. The violence led people to call it Bleeding Kansas.
Up until the 1850s, there had been 3 main political parties in America: the Federalists, the Democratic- Republicans, and the Whigs. Another party will emerge because of the debate over slavery, The Republican Party. The Republican Party took a free soil position on slavery. This meant that all new states that would be added to the U.S. would be free states, not slaves. The Republican Party was NOT for abolition, meaning outlawing slavery in places that it already existed. The first Republican president was Abraham Lincoln. The party of southern whites was The Democratic Party.
During the 1840s and 1850s, a man named Dred Scott lived in states where slavery was prohibited with his owner. Then, in 1857, Dred Scott moved with his owner to Louisiana, where slavery was legal. But, before making it to Louisiana, Dreds owner died. The owners wife refused to allow Dred Scott to be free. Since he had lived where slavery was illegal, he sued for his freedom. The case went all the way to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court was dominated by southern Democrats. They, of course, were in favor of slavery.
In what has been know as The Dred Scott Case, the Supreme Court ruled against Scott. The Supreme Court ruled that slaves were not citizens of the United States, but property. Because white Americans had the right to own property, their property could not be taken away from them under any circumstances. This meant that it was impossible for Congress to pass a law that stopped slavery from expanding into new states. This case increased tensions between the North and South. It is also considered to be the worst ruling in the history of the Supreme Court.
During Bleeding Kansas, Charles Sumner, who was a Senator from Massachusetts delivered a speech against slavery. In his speech, Sumner made fun of another man in Congress who was from South Carolina. Sumner basically said that the Southerners supported slavery because they wanted to be able to have sex with their slaves anytime they wanted. Preston Brooks was the uncle of the man Sumner was making fun of. He was outraged. He approached Sumner in Congress and beat him with a heavy cane. Sumner nearly died from the beating.
Charles Sumner could not work for 3 years after the beating. He suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and had bad dreams for the rest of his life. Finally, he took a long trip on a ship to Europe to try and relieve his stress.
In the 1830s, the abolitionist movement gained momentum, despite being seen by most people as a movement of fanatics. Most of the whites in the movement were middle class and educated. Most of the blacks in the movement were former slaves. The abolitionists sent many petitions to the government to ask for the end of slavery. But, pro-slavery Senators had introduced a gag rule, meaning that any petitions against slavery would not even be discussed in Congress. The abolitionists even started a political party called The Liberty Party, but none of their candidates ever won.
The abolitionists did nothing to impact the governments stance on slavery. Most northerners were not abolitionists. In fact, abolitionists were NOT popular with people of the time. Sometimes, abolitionists were even attacked in the North. But, the abolitionists did succeed in changing some of the public opinion about slavery in the hearts of Americans.
Harriet Tubman was an escaped slave. After gaining freedom, she returned to the South nineteen times in order to lead other slaves to freedom. The path she took with the slaves was called the Underground Railroad. She experienced visions throughout her life due to an accident she had when she was a child. She said that these visions were from God.
Garrison founded an influential anti-slavery newspaper called The Liberator. The Liberator was the most widely-circulated abolitionist newspaper. Garrison was one of many whites who were part of the abolitionist movement.
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the book Uncle Toms Cabin. Uncle Toms Cabin was a fictional book that described the horrors of slavery. The book was about a slave named Tom, who, at the end of the book, is murdered by his overseer. But, as he is dying, Tom forgives the man. Her book was important because it turned many people in the North and around the world against slavery. Many people, including Abraham Lincoln, believed that Uncle Toms Cabin was the final straw that caused the Civil War.
So you are the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war?
In 1859, a group of abolitionists led by John Brown attacked the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. This group hoped to take the weapons and give them to slaves who could then rise up in rebellion. Their plan failed, however, when word got out about their plan and no slaves showed up. John Brown was hanged. This intensified the Souths hatred of abolitionists.
Women who served in the abolitionist movement were offended because men did not allow them to be equal at meetings. So, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton helped organize the first womens rights convention. It was held in Seneca Falls, New York, and was called the Seneca Falls Conference in 1848. This conference drew attention to womens rights.
In 1860, the Democrats were split. The northern Democrats supported Stephen Douglas for president, who supported popular sovereignty. The southern Democrats supported John Breckinridge, who supported allowing slavery in all states. The Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln was very against slavery – he even called it evil which was different than others. The South was very afraid of Lincoln. Since the Democratic vote was split, Lincoln won the election of 1860.