Presentation on theme: "HENRY CLAY: PART 2 Kentucky Studies 2012-2013. AGENDA: 11/26/12 Bellwork Intro to paper assignment! PPT/Notes: Henry Clay Part 2 Exit Slip Learning Target:"— Presentation transcript:
HENRY CLAY: PART 2 Kentucky Studies
AGENDA: 11/26/12 Bellwork Intro to paper assignment! PPT/Notes: Henry Clay Part 2 Exit Slip Learning Target: I will identify and describe
BELLWORK Henry Clay once wrote: "I know of no South, no North, no East, no West to which I owe my allegiance. The Union is my country. What does this statement mean?
HENRY CLAY Compromise of 1820 Compromise of 1833 Compromise of 1850 War Hawk; War of 1812 Negotiator Great Compromiser, the Great Pacificator.
CLAY After receiving a law license in his native Virginia, Clay moved to Lexington, Kentucky to establish a practice. He was a renowned criminal defense attorney and a prosperous estate owner. Clay did not hesitate to voice his social and political views, and he soon gained a reputation as a skilled orator. In 1803, he was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives and, five years later, he was chosen as speaker.
CLAY In the early 19th century, American exports fell victim to economic sparring between Britain and France. American vessels were seized by the warring European nations and the British navy regularly impressed (abducted) American sailors. Clay and a group of strident young men known as the War Hawks were outraged by these repeated violations of American neutrality. The War Hawks were fed up with the plodding diplomatic tactics of Jefferson and Madison and they were convinced that a declaration of war against Britain was the only honorable response.
CLAY Shortly after his arrival in the House, Clay was chosen to be speaker. He played this supervisory role well, although he frequently left the Speaker's chair to participate in debates. Clay, a consummate politician, also spent considerable time developing new coalitions and ensuring that fellow War Hawks chaired the key naval and foreign relations committees.
CLAY A Federalist politician once commented that "Henry Clay was the man whose influence and power more than that of any other produced the War of 1812."
CLAY By 1814, even the radical War Hawk was ready for the war to end. Clay accepted a position on the five-member American delegation sent to Europe to negotiate peace. Although he did not always see eye-to-eye with the other U.S. diplomats, Clay was a shrewd and stubborn spokesman for the American position.
IN-CLASS ACTIVITY You will complete the handout, Henry Clays accomplishments. Go from station to station and find the information for each event (3 events); fill in the chart. Turn in B1 when finished.
COMPROMISE OF 1820
1820 In the years leading up to the Missouri Compromise of 1820, tensions began to rise between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions within the U.S. Congress and across the country. They reached a boiling point after Missouris 1819 request for admission to the Union as a slave state, which threatened to upset the delicate balance between slave states and free states. To keep the peace, Congress orchestrated a two-part compromise, granting Missouris request but also admitting Maine as a free state.
1820 It also passed an amendment that drew an imaginary line across the former Louisiana Territory, establishing a boundary between free and slave regions that remained the law of the land until it was negated by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.
1820 To keep the peace, Congress orchestrated a two-part compromise, granting Missouris request but also admitting Maine as a free state. It also passed an amendment that drew an imaginary line across the former Louisiana Territory, establishing a boundary between free and slave regions that remained the law of the land until it was negated by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.
1820 "The Great Compromiser" proposed that Missouri be admitted to the Union as a slave state, which was how the state constitution was written by the Missouri convention. To pacify the North, Clay proposed that the southern boundary of Missouri be extended throughout the rest of the western territory and that slavery would be forbidden forever, north of that line. This became known as the Missouri Compromise.
1833 On December 10, 1832, President Andrew Jackson issued a proclamation to the people of South Carolina that disputed a states' right to nullify a federal law. Jackson's proclamation was written in response to an ordinance issued by a South Carolina convention that declared that the tariff acts of 1828 and 1832 "are unauthorized by the constitution of the United States, and violate the true meaning and intent thereof and are null, void, and no law, nor binding upon this State."
1833 Led by John C. Calhoun, Jackson's vice president at the time, the nullifiers felt that the tariff acts of 1828 and 1832 favored Northern- manufacturing interests at the expense of Southern farmers. After Jackson issued his proclamation, Congress passed the Force Act that authorized the use of military force against any state that resisted the tariff acts
1833 In 1833, Henry Clay helped broker a compromise bill with Calhoun that slowly lowered tariffs over the next decade. The Compromise Tariff of 1833 was eventually accepted by South Carolina and ended the nullification crisis.
1850 The Compromise of 1850 consists of five laws passed in September of 1850 that dealt with the issue of slavery. In 1849 California requested permission to enter the Union as a free state, potentially upsetting the balance between the free and slave states in the U.S. Senate.
1850 Senator Henry Clay introduced a series of resolutions on January 29, 1850, in an attempt to seek a compromise and avert a crisis between North and South. As part of the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act was amended and the slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished.
1850 Furthermore, California entered the union as a free state and a territorial government was created in Utah. Also, an act was passed settling a boundary dispute between Texas and New Mexico that also established a territorial government in New Mexico.
HOW GREAT OF A SPEAKER? I am far from surveying the vast maritime power of Great Britain with the desponding eye with which other gentlemen behold it. I cannot allow myself to be discouraged at the prospect even of her thousand ships. This country only requires resolution, and a proper exertion of its immense resources, to command respect and to vindicate every essential right. If we are not able to meet the wolves of the forest, shall we put up with the barking of every petty fox that trips across our way?
SPEAKER CLAY Mr. President, I have said that I want to know whether we are bound together by a rope of sand or an effective capable government competent to enforce the powers therein vested by the Constitution of the United States. And what is this doctrine of Nullification, set up again, revived, resuscitated, neither enlarged nor improved, nor expanded in this new edition of it, that when a single state shall undertake to say that a law passed by the twenty-nine states is unconstitutional and void, she may raise the standards of resistance and defy the twenty-nine. Sir, I denied that doctrine twenty years agoI deny it nowI will die denying it. There is no such principle....
SPEAKER CLAY The public attention has been drawn to the approaching arrival of the Hornet, as the period when the measures of our government would take a decisive character, or rather their final cast. We are among those who have attached to this event a high degree of importance, and have therefore looked to it with the utmost solicitude.
SPEAKER CLAY Let war therefore be forthwith proclaimed against England. With her there can be no motive for delay. Any further discussion, any new attempt at negotiation, would be as fruitless as it would be dishonorable. With France we shall still be at liberty to pursue the course which circumstances may require. The advance she has already made by the repeal of her decrees; the manner of its reception by our government; and the prospect which exists of an amicable accommodation, entitle her to this preference…
EXIT SLIP Henry Clay was one of the greatest statesmen of his time and in American history; yet he never served as President of his country. Abraham Lincoln regarded Henry Clay as the greatest statesman the nation had ever produced, calling him my beau ideal of a statesman. Do you agree with Lincolns description of Clay? Why? Why not? Provide details from your notes.